THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HUMAN GENOME:
-study of human genetics
-alterations in the number and structure of the chromosomes
-genetic diseases caused by mutations of a single gene
-counseling and genetic testing
- society and ethics
THE CONCEPTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL GENETICS
-cell differentiation and nuclear equivalence
-genetic control of development
-cancer and cell development
THE DARWINIAN CONCEPT OF EVOLUTION:
-what is evolution?
-the concepts on evolution before Darwin
-Darwin and evolution
-the evidence supporting evolution
EVOLUTIONARY CHANGES IN POPULATIONS:
- genotype, phenotypic and allelic frequencies
- the Hardy-Weinberg principle
- genetic variability in populations
THE MECHANISMS OF SPECIATION AND MACROEVOLUTION:
- what is a species?
- reproductive isolation
- the speed of evolutionary changes
- the macroevolution
DNA TECHNOLOGIES AND GENOMICS:
- DNA cloning
- DNA analysis
- applications of DNA technologies
- DNA technology has raised security concerns
THE PROCESSES OF REPRODUCTION:
-asexual and sexual reproduction
-human reproduction: the male
- human reproduction: the female
- sexual response
- fertilization and early stages of development
- birth control methods
- sexually transmitted diseases
THE PROCESSES OF ANIMAL DEVELOPMENT:
- the development of the form
- extra-embryonic membranes
- human development
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM:
- Development and organization of the immune system
- Primary and secondary lymphoid organs
- Leukocyte formula
- Innate immunity and acquired immunity
- Antigens and Aptenes
- Development and specific functions of T and B lymphocytes
- Humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity
- Antibodies: structure and classification
- Immunopathology: hypersensitivity, allergic phenomena, autoimmune diseases.
- Examples of connective and musculoskeletal diseases on an immune and autoimmune basis.
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ERYTHROPOIESIS:
- Structure and functions of hematopoietic bone marrow, effects of erythropoietic hormone (EPO) and other growth factors on hematopoiesis.
- The metabolism of iron and vitamins necessary for erythropoiesis.
Anemia definition and classification
- Physiopathological mechanisms responsible for anemias.
- Central and peripheral compensatory mechanisms of anemia. Polycythemias.
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF HEMOSTASIS AND COAGULATION:
- Endothelium, platelets and plasma factors in the haemostatic and coagulative process.
- The main haemorrhagic disorders due to defects of the endothelium, platelets and plasma coagulation factors (hemophilias).
- Hematoma, ecchymosis. The complications of hemorrhagic diseases.
MUSCLE-SKELETAL DISEASES (Myopathies):
Acquired and genetically based musculoskeletal alterations (mode of transmission)
- Duchenne / Becker dystrophy, Cystoid dystrophy;
- Toxic myopathies
- Inflammatory Myopathies: Polymyositis, Dermatomyositis, Inclusion Bodies
- Autophagic Accumulation Myopathies (vacuolar)
- Metabolic myopathies: Glycogenosis, Lipidic, Mitochondrial.
DISEASES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUES :
- Pathophysiology of connective tissue.
- Synthesis of collagen and types of collagen.
- Collagen diseases (collagenopathies), a mode of hereditary transmission.
- Forms associated with congenital metabolic alterations. The alterations affecting the extracellular matrix.
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF AGING:
- Theories on aging, molecular and cellular alterations related to aging, Sarcopenia.