Definition of drug; development of medicines; generic drugs and brand name drugs; Biological and biosimilar drugs.
Pharmacokinetics: mechanisms of transport across biological membranes; main routes of drug administration, absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion of drugs.
Bioavailability, blood-brain barrier, placental barrier, volume of distribution, therapeutic range, dose-effect and dose-response curves, therapeutic index, plasma half-life.
Pharmacodynamics: drug-receptor interactions, classification of receptors,
main signal transduction pathways; receptor agonists and antagonists, potency, intrinsic activity and maximum efficacy of a drug; receptor regulation: up-regulation, down-regulation and desensitization.
Drugs acting on autonomic nervous system: sympathomimetic and sympatholytic drugs; parasympathomimetic and parasympatholytic drugs.
Drugs used in the treatment of asthma: bronchodilators, corticosteroids, methylxanthine.
Drug therapy of inflammation: non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Drugs used in treatment of pain: opiod analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and other agents with analgesic action (tramadol, tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsivants).
Drugs used in the therapy of the epilepsies: Mechanism of action of antiepilepsy medications; main antiseizure drug: phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid, ethosuximide, phenobarbital, benzodiazepines and new antiseizure agents.
Drugs used for the treatment of spasticity: benzodiazepines, baclofen, dantrolene, botulinum toxin, cannabinoids .
drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease: Levodopa and Carbidopa, dopamine agonists, inhibitor of MAO-B, anticholinergic drugs.
Hypoglycemic agents (insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents); drug therapy of hypercholesterolemia; drugs for obesity.
Agents affecting calcium metabolism
and bone remodelling: calcitonin, parathyroid hormone, calcium, vitamin D, bisphosphonates.
Drugs affecting blood, cardiovascular and renal systems: cardiac glycosides, nitrates, platelet aggregation inhibitors, antihypertensive drugs (diuretics, renin inhibitors, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, β-blockers, others).
Toxicology of the main agents used in sport doping: cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine, cannabinoids, opioids, ethanol, anabolic androgenic steroids.
Neurobiological mechanisms of drug addiction; tolerance, physical and psychological dependence, withdrawal syndrome.