Introduction to physics - Physical quantities and their measurement units - Physical dimensions - Scalar and vector quantities - Vector components- Operations with vectors: sum, difference, scalar product.
Overview on the particle kinematics: Reference systems - Rectilinear motion and curvilinear motion: position, velocity and acceleration.
Overview on the particle dynamics: Newton's laws - Inertial reference systems - Applications of Newton's laws: weight force, friction forces, reaction forces, elastic forces.
Work and energy: Work of a force - Power - Kinetic energy - Theorem of live forces - Conservative forces - Potential energy - Conservation of mechanical energy.
Ideal and real fluids: Density and pressure - Fluids in static conditions: the principle of Pascal, the law of hydrostatics, the principle of Archimedes. Pressure gauges. Fluids in dynamic conditions: flow rate and continuity equation. Bernoulli equation and applications: aneurysm and stenosis. Viscosity, Poiseville equation: blood flow and circulation in the human body. Estimate of the daily work of the heart. Breathing and lung work.
Thermology and Thermodynamics: Temperature - State of a thermodynamic system - Equation of state of ideal gases - Kinetic-molecular theory and definition of temperature - Thermal expansion, thermal capacity and specific heats - Heat transfer - Work - Cycles - First principle and overview on the second principle of Thermodynamics. Isochoric, isobaric, isothermal and adiabatic thermodynamic transformations. Applications: Thermometric scales and bulb thermometers (mercury, alcohol), gas thermometers, bimetallic foil thermometers, densimeters, infrared thermometers. General characteristics of a thermometer. Calorimeter and calorimetric bomb. Application of the I principle of thermodynamics to metabolism.
Electrostatics and electrodynamics: Electric charge. Coulomb's law. The electric field. Electrical potential and potential difference. The electric current. Electrical resistance and Ohm's law. Applications: resistance thermometers, thermistors, thermocouples. Electrostatic capacity and capacitors. Series and parallel resistors. Series and parallel capacitors. Alternating current, capacitive reactance. Series RC circuit as a function of frequency. Impedance and phasors. Bioimpedance
Mechanical waves: longitudinal and transverse waves, wave intensity. Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction (Snell's law). Effects of refraction and reflection for mechanical waves in different media. Maximum angle and total reflection. Ultrasound method: absorption, diffusion, axial and transverse resolution. Piezoelectric probes. Formation of A mode, B mode, M mode images. Example of adipometer and of the related images.
Electromagnetic waves: physical principles underlying chromatography and spectrophotometry.
Overview on Excel.