1) Aetiology and cellular pathology: health and disease concepts, aetiology and pathogenesis. Environmental diseases: diseased caused by chemical or physical agents. Microbiologic agents and the patterns of disease caused by them. Molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity: PAMPS,
2) Cellular damage and adaptations, reversible and irreversible cell injury: necrosis and apoptosis.
3) Body defenses against pathogen agents. The first (mechanical/physical barriers), second (innate immunity) and third line (specific immunity,
cellular and antibodies) of defence, The immunodeficiency. The autoimmune diseases. The allergies.
4) Inflammatory-reparative response: aetiology and classification of acute inflammation, chemical mediators, vascular changes and exudates
formation, cellular events and phagocytosis, systemic consequences and aetiopathogenesis of fever; chronic and granulomatous inflammation;
reparative response: tissue repair and wound healing, fibrosis. Inflammatory diseases.
5) The physiopathology of fever and thermoregulation.
6) Tumoral transformation as proliferative disease. Molecular basis of tumoral tramsformation: oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The
causes of cancer including chemicals and biological agents, the phenotype of the transformed cell, the genes causing and restricting cancer growth, tumor classification; carcinogenesis; epidemiology and prevention; the molecular mechanisms of tumor progression and metastatization. The relationship between cancer cells and tumoral microenvironment. Inflammation and cancer. Nutrition and cancer.
7) Causes and mechanisms of malnutrition. Molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis, formation of atheromatous plaque and related consequences; thrombosis; embolism; infarction; hypoxia and cyanosis; oedema. Physiopathology of the gastro-intestinal tract (gastritis, ulcer, reflux gastric-esiphageal, celiac disease, Crhon disease). Mechanism of diabetes, classification and consequences.
- Laboratory Medicine: terminology, unit of measure, values of reference,data interpretation. Collection of the biological samples. The sensitivity
and the specificity of the predictive values.
- Diagnostic values in haematology: the anemias, fibrinolysis and the control of blood coagulation.
- The chemical mediators of inflammation.
- Markers in cancer.
- Markers of diabetes.
- Clinical enzymology and the values of liver and pancreas function.
- Analysis of urine samples.
- Mentions about vaccines and serotherapy.
Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Botany
Definition of drug and dietary supplement, regulatory differences.
Principles of pharmacokinetics: drug absorption, bioavailability, distribution, biotransformation, induction and enzymatic inhibition, excretion.
Principles of pharmacodynamics: receptors, dose-response relationship, agonists, partial agonists, antagonists.
Factors that modify the action of drugs: age; tolerance; placebo and nocebo effects.
General concepts on interactions between drugs.
Side effects, toxicity from overdose, idiosyncratic and allergic reactions.
Teratogenesis and fetal toxicity.
Drugs used in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia.
Drugs active on gastrointestinal system (essential lines on the most commonly used drugs such as antiulcer, antiemetics, prokinetics, laxatives).
Influence of drugs on nutritional status and availability of nutrients.
The plant kingdom as a natural source of substances that can be used in different fields, among which, the dietary and therapeutic ones.
Plants currently of greatest interest in the field of nutrition and diet, with particular attention to the habitat, the geographical spread and the part
of the plant used.
Particular attention will be paid to: a) plants with polysaccharides of dietary interest, for example: aloe, mallow and altea, psyllium, flax
(seminal integuments), prickly pear, tamarind, carob, cassia, guar gum, calendula, polysaccharides from red algae (agar agar and carrageenan),
from brown algae (alginates), the polysaccharides of the sheath of blue algae, (the most known food plants are not taken into consideration); b)
spontaneous and cultivated medicinal plants; c) aspects of the cultivation of the main medicinal plants