Composition of living matter: Chemical composition of living matter: definition of atom, molecule, chemical compound, organic compound. Main types of chemical bonds. Biological macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids .
Living organisms: Characteristics of living organisms. Origin of life. The kingdoms of living organisms. Differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Origin of Eukaryotes: endosymbiotic theory. Virus: structure, replication and types. Viroids and prions. Biology of the cell: The cell theory.
Components of the prokaryotic cell: cell wall, flagella, cell membrane, cytoplasm, genetic material. Bacteria: composition , movement, reproduction ( binary fission, transformation, conjugation, transduction), metabolism.
Components of the eukaryotic cell: cytoplasmic organelles (rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes) and the nucleus (nuclear pores, nucleolus and chromatin). Cytoskeleton: microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. Cell junctions (desmosomes, tight junctions, gap junctions).
Structure and function of biological membranes. Cell-environment interactions. Mechanisms of transport across the membrane: simple and facilitated diffusion, active transport and passive (sodium-potassium pump), exocytosis and endocytosis. Receptor-mediated endocytosis. Mechanism of action of steroid hormones and peptide hormones (second messengers and signal transduction). DNA double-helix structure and replication. Various levels of organization of DNA in the cell: nuclear chromatin and chromosome structure. Eukaryotic gene structure. RNA: structure, function and types. Transcription and RNA processing. Genetic code. Protein synthesis. Gene regulation in prokaryotes (lactose operon and tryptophan operon). Gene regulation in eukaryotes. Genes and development. Cell differentiation and nuclear equivalence. The genetic control of development. Structure and function of enzymes. Enzyme-substrate complex . Enzyme inhibition. Immunity.
The cell and energy. The flow of energy. Metabolic reactions. Role of ATP and cellular work. Energy metabolism. Cellular respiration: glycolysis, Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
Elements of Genetics: Cell cycle and its regulation. Mitosis and Meiosis stages and differences. Mendel's laws: dominance, segregation of alleles, independent assortment of alleles. Concept of the gene, locus, allele, genotype and phenotype. Extensions of Mendelian genetics. Mode of transmission of characters (autosomal dominant, recessive, X-linked ).