Chemical composition of living organisms: definition of atom, molecule, macromolecule. Organic and inorganic. Biological macromolecules: carbohydrates, amino acids and proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, vitamins.
Characteristics. The origin of life. The kingdoms of living organisms. Protists and origin of eukaryotes: The endosymbiotic theory. Differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
The cell theory. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. Structure of the prokaryotic cell. The Plant cells: components of the eukaryotic cell: cytoplasmic organelles (ER, lysosomes, ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria), the nucleus. DNA. Cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm and cytoplasmic organelles. Structure and function of biological membranes. Cell - environment interactions. Transport mechanisms through the membrane.
Energy and metabolism
The cell and energy. The flow of energy. Role of ATP and cellular work. Heterotrophic organisms, chemoautotrophic and photoautotrophic. The energy metabolism. Photosynthesis: role and function. Light phase and dark phase. Cellular respiration.
Characteristic plant cell structures. Cell wall: composition, structure and functions. Plasmodesmata, primary and secondary wall. Secondary modifications of cell wall: gums, mucilage, emicellullose.
The plastid system: chloroplasts, chromoplasts, leucoplasts, structures and functions. Polysaccharides: starch and cellulose. The vacuole: development, functions and content. The secondary plant cell metabolism: biological role, sites of synthesis and accumulation of main classes of secondary metabolites. Examples of metabolites of pharmaceutical interest.
Plant anatomy and histology
Definition and classification of tissues. Meristem and differentiated tissues.
Growth and differentiation.
Tegument tissues, conductors, medullary, mechanical and secretory: forms and functions.
Anatomy of the root: primary and secondary structure. Nutrition and water transport .
Anatomy and histology of the stem. Vegetative apex. Primary and secondary structure. Cambium. Wooden body. Secondary cortex.
Anatomical and histological structure of the leaf.
Mechanisms of growth and organ development .
Pharmaceutical importance of roots, stems, leaves.
Tallophyta and Cormophyta. Organs and their modifications. Leaf descriptors and morphology, phyllotaxis. Flower and inflorescences. Different types of fruits. Seeds, role and function. Germination. Fruits and seeds with pharmaceutical application.
Reproduction and growth
Vegetative and sexual reproduction. Life cycles. Reproduction in higher plants with reference to the angiosperms (double fertilization, flower, fruit). Transpiration and mineral nutrition. Growth in plants: regulation and responsiveness to stimuli.
The concept of specie. The taxonomic system. Outline of plant systematic. Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms.
Definitions of medicinal plant, medicinal plant, drugs and plant complex
Branches of Pharmacology.
Definition and classification of drugs: medicament; poison (or toxic); causal or etiological, pathogenetic, symptomatic, replacement drugs; orphan drugs.
Origin and nature of the drugs: drug from natural origin, drug from partial chemical synthesis, drug derived from chemical synthesis.
Drug action: sites of drug action (local, regional, systemic); factors and conditions affecting drug effect (related to drug, to formulation, to patient, to environment); (main or therapeutic, secondary and side) drug effects.
Pharmacodynamic concepts: definition, classification and regulation of receptors; agonists, antagonists, partial agonists, inverse agonists; definition of affinity, potency and efficacy; graded and quantal dose-response curves; therapeutic index, margin of safety, therapeutic window.
Pharmacokinetics: drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
Drug absorption: transfer of drugs across biological membranes (passive diffusion, carrier-mediated transport, endocytosis, exocytosis); Henderson-Hasselbach equation; routes of drug administration (natural and artificial), factors affecting drug absorption (related to drug, to formulation, to patient); delayed absorption.
Distribution of drugs in the body: drug binding to plasma proteins and tissue; blood-brain barrier; placental barrier; factors affecting drug distribution.
Drug metabolism or biotransformation: phase I and phase II reactions; first-pass effect; factors affecting drug metabolism (enzyme inhibition and induction, genetic polymorphism, disease, age, gender).
Drug excretion: primary and secondary routes of drug excretion; factors affecting drug excretion.
Pharmacokinetic parameters: bioavailability and bioequivalence; volume of distribution; one- and multicompartment models; (total, renal, pulmonary, hepatic) clearance; first and zero order elimination kinetics; extraction ratio; elimination half-life; drug accumulation; steady-state; loading dose, maintenance dose, therapeutic drug monitoring, drug dosage in children and elderly.
Adverse drug reactions: type A and type B; idiosyncratic drug reactions; drug allergy; tolerance; tachyphylaxis; drug dependence; withdrawal syndrome; phototoxicity.
Combination therapy: drug indifference; (physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic) drug interactions
Drug development: toxicological animal testing (acute, subacute and chronic toxicity, effects on reproduction, carcinogenic and mutagenic potential); clinical testing (phases I, II, III, IV).
Instability in active compound concentration: endogenous and exogenous factors.
Production and preservation of drugs: drying, stabilization, sterilization; chemical analysis and quality control.
Drugs containing carbohydrates: manna, gum Arabic, guar gum, psyllium, alginic acid, agar agar, carrageenan, althaea officinalis, malva, linum, tilia, cassia fistula, tamarindus.
Drugs containing fatty acids: linum, olea europaea, prunun dulcis and ricinus oils.
Drugs containing saponins: smilax, panax ginseng, polygala, hyppocastanum, quillaja, glycirrhiza.
Drugs containing active steroid compounds: digitalis purpurea, digitalis lanata, strophantus, drimia maritime.
Drugs containing essences and resins: citrus aurantium, a. absinthium, a. cina, matricaria recutita, valeriana officinalis, menthe piperita, Melissa officinalis, arnica montana, pinus oilresin, canphora, anisum, foeniculum, acorus calamus, cinnamom, eugenia cariophyllata, thymus, cannabis sativa.
Drugs containing active phenolic and polyphenolic compounds: aloe, cascara sagrada, frangula, rhubarb, senna, ginkgo, hypericum, uva ursi, salix, gall nuts of Aleppo, hamamelis.
Drugs containing alkaloids: aconitum, belladonna, hyosciamus, stramonium, coca, jaborandi, hydrastis, boldo, ipecac, curare, rauwolfia, yohimbe, physostigma venenosum, nux vomica, claviceps purpurea, cinchona, betel nut, tobacco, conium, lobelia, cocoa, coffea arabica, cola vera, thea sinensis, mate, guarana, ephedra.
Drugs containing active antitumor compounds: vinca rosea, podophyllum, taxus, colchicum.
Drugs containing active hallucinogenic compounds: peyote, psilocybe, amanita muscaria.