Introduction: Principles of Chemistry. Molecules and molecular compounds. Aggregation States of the Matter. Atomic number, mass number and isotopes. Molecular mass and formula mass. The mole. Molecular formula, empirical formula, ions and ionic compounds.
IUPAC rules for the nomenclature of the most common inorganic compounds
Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry: Energy and its units. Temperature, heat and thermal capacity. The System and Surroundings. Heat and work. Internal Energy. First law of thermodynamics. Enthalpy. Reaction heat and enthalpy. Thermochemical equation. Hess law.
The atomic theory: structure of the atom, nuclear model of the atom. The proton and the nucleus. Radioactivity. Quantum theory, quantization of energy. Photons and photoelectric effect. Bohr's theory of the hydrogen atom. The Schroedinger equation. Quantum numbers. Atomic orbitals, electron configuration. The periodic table. Periodic trends in chemical properties of the main group elements.
Chemical bond: Ionic bond. Covalent bond. Electronegativity and polarity. The Lewis approach. Molecular geometry and the VSEPR model. Valence bond theory. Multiple and single bonds: s and p bonds. Hybridization and hybrid orbitals. Hybrid orbitals and molecular geometries. Molecular orbital theory. Metallic bond.
Gas: Properties of gases. The kinetic molecular theory of gases.
States of matter: Equilibrium between the phases. Phase changes. Vapor pressure. Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Phase diagram. Intermolecular forces. Hydrogen Bond. Properties of solids. Crystal structures and unit cells. The liquid state.
Solutions: Types of solutions. Concentration units. Solutions of gases in liquids and Henry law. Colligative properties of solutions. Raoult's law.
Chemical kinetics: Reaction rate. Reaction order. First-order reactions: concentration dependence vs. time. Half-life, Arrhenius law.
Chemical equilibruium: The concept of equilibrium and the equilibrium constant. Le Chatelier's principle. Heterogeneous equilibria. Aqueous equilibria. Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis acids and bases. The acid-base properties water. The pH scale. Strong and weak acids and bases. Polyprotic acids. Amphoteric substances. Acid-base properties of salt solutions: hydrolysis. Buffer solutions. Solubility product and common ion effect.
Thermodynamics and equilibrium: Spontaneous reactions. Entropy and second law of thermodynamics. Third law of thermodynamics and standard entropies. Free energy and equilibrium constant. Van’t Hoff equation.
Electrochemistry: Redox reactions. Galvanic cells. Standard reduction potentials. Nernst equation. Concentration cells. Electrolysis. Faraday's laws.
Properties of the elements: Properties of the main groups of the Periodic Table, including transition metals and their complexes.
Exercises on the following subjects:
- mole, empirical and molecular formulas, percent by mass,
- stoichiometry, the limiting reactant;
- gas laws;
- concentration and composition of the solutions;
- equilibria in the gas phase (Kc, Kp);
- equilibria in solution: acid/base equilibria, hydrolysis, buffer solutions, heterogeneous equilibria;
- balancing redox reactions;