Introduction to Physical-Chemistry.
The Gas Laws: Boyle's law; Charles and Gay-Lussac’s Law; Avogadro's law; The ideal gas equation; Dalton's law; Real gases, van der Waals equation of state. The Kinetic Theory of Gases; definition of kinetic energy and temperature; Molecular interpretation of thermodynamics; Maxwell’s laws of distribution; Molecular collisions and mean free path; Boltzmann’s distribution law; Population of molecular energy levels; The energy of the molecules: translational, rotational, vibrational and electronic energy; The equipartition of energy; Heat capacity as a measure of the average molecular energy.
Thermodynamics. First Law of Thermodynamics: Work, heat and internal energy; The First Law of Thermodynamics; Reversible and irreversible processes; Exact differentials and state functions; The enthalpy; The heat capacities at constant pressure and volume; Thermochemistry; Hess's law; Enthalpy of reactions; Kirchhoff’s law. The Second Law of Thermodynamics: The spontaneous processes; Entropy; The Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Carnot cycle; The variations of entropy; Entropy and the direction of time; Disorder, probability and entropy; The Third Law of Thermodynamics; The entropy changes in chemical reactions. Physical and Chemical equilibrium: Entropy and equilibrium; Dynamic equilibrium; The Free Energy function; The meaning of Gibbs and Helmholtz functions; The change in the Gibbs function for chemical reactions; The temperature and pressure dependence of Gibbs function; The Gibbs function and phase equilibria; The Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The equilibrium constants and the Gibbs function; The chemical potential; The variation of the equilibrium constants with temperature and pressure.
Electrochemistry. Electrochemical potential; Electrochemical cells; The thermodynamics of electrochemical cells; Electrodes; The electromotive force; Standard potentials; The Debye - Huckel theory. Electrode kinetics: overview.
Chemical Kinetics. Rates of chemical reactions; Molecularity and order of reaction; Reaction mechanisms; Catalysis; Collisional theory; Activated complex theory.