APPLIED PHYSICS1. INTRODUCTION

Review of algebra and trigonometry

Vectors and operations between vectors.

Main physical quantities and their measurement units. Dimensional analysis.

Conversion of units.

2.PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS AND RELATED ERRORS

Accuracy of a measurement, random and systematic errors.

Significant figures.

Measurement errors and average operations.

Frequency distribution and Gauss curve.

Relative errors, percentage errors, and their propagation in indirect measures.

The experimental method and the "problem solving".

3.KINEMATICS

Kinematics of the point particle.

Average speed and instantaneous speed.

Velocity, acceleration. Gravity acceleration.

Velocity and acceleration in two dimensions.

Circular motion and harmonic motion.

4.DYNAMICS

Dynamics of the point particle. Force and inertial mass.

Newton's laws.

Gravitational force, weight, gravitational mass.

Elastic forces.

Friction.

5.WORK AND ENERGY

Work done by a force.

Conservative forces.

Kinetic and potential energy.

Energy conservation.

Mechanical power.

6.IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM

Impulse and linear momentum.

Conservation of linear momentum. Isolated systems.

Elastic and inelastic collisions.

7.ROTATIONS

Rigid bodies. Center of mass.

Torque.

Basic equations of the static of rigid bodies. Conditions of equilibrium. Levers.

Angular variables, rotation of rigid bodies. Rotational dynamics.

Angular momentum. Conservation of angular momentum.

Moment of inertia.

Translations and rotations of rigid bodies.

Rototranslational kinetic energy.

8.ELASTICITY OF MATERIALS

Elastic properties of the materials and their application to the human body: elasticity and fracture of the bones.

9. FLUIDS

Density and pressure. Stevino's principle. Pascal's principle. Archimedes' principle.

The Torricelli experience and pressure gauges.

Flow and the equation of continuity. Laminar flow. Bernoulli's equation.

Torricelli's theorem. Venturi effect.

Fluid dynamics applied to the cardio-circulatory system. Viscosity. Poiseuille's law. Work of the heart

Surface tension. Laplace's law. Surfactants.

THERMOLOGY

Temperature and thermometric scales.

Heat and heat capacity.

Heat propagation: conduction, convection, irradiation, electromagnetic radiation

THERMODYNAMICS

Ideal gas law.

First law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic processes.

Kinetic theory of gases.

Second law of thermodynamics. Heat engines. Carnot engine. Efficiency.

ELECTROSTATICS

Electrical properties of matter.

Coulomb's law. Electric field and electrical potential.

Electric capacity. Capacitors. Dielectrics.

Gauss's law.

ELECTRIC CURRENTS

Electric current and measuring instruments.

Electrical resistance. Ohm’s law.

Electrical circuits. Kirchhoff's laws.

ELECTROMAGNETISM.

Magnetic property of matter.

Magnetic induction. Permanent magnets.

Magnetic fields produced by electric currents.

Magnetic Force.

Motion of a charge in the magnetic field. Cyclotron. Mass spectrometer.

Force on a current-carrying wire.

Ampere's law.

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

Induced currents.

Magnetic field flow.

Faraday-Lenz’s law.

Alternating currents.

MECHANICAL AND ACOUSTIC WAVES

Longitudinal and transverse mechanical waves.

Stationary waves.

Interference.

The ear and the sound.

Doppler effect.

OPTICS

Electromagnetic waves and light.

Diopter and thin lenses.

The eye and its separating power.

The optical defects of the eye.

ELEMENTS OF MODERN PHYSICS

The crisis of classical Physics

The black body radiation and the quantization of energy

The photoelectric effect, the photons and the corpuscular nature of light

The Compton effect

Bohr's atom and the quantization of energy levels of the atom

The spin

X-rays

The Laser

Nuclear forces

Radioactivity and radioactive decay; interactions with biological matterINFORMATICSIntroduction to Computer Science: general definitions. Brief history of computer science. Birth of the computer. Binary system. Types of computers. PC architecture and their general characteristics.

Hardware: components of a PC: motherboard, CPU, memory, I/O, storage (HD, CD-ROM, DVD), flash memory, sound card, video card, monitor, power supply.

Software: Firmware, BIOS, Windows, overview of Linux and OS-X operating systems, Drivers, Application programs. Concept of algorithm, compilers, libraries. Windows configuration. Microsoft Office with particular attention to Excel.

Internet: computer networks, LAN networks, world wide web, e-mail, search engines.

Security: backup systems, cryptography, computer viruses and the main defense systems against malware: antivirus, firewall, antispyware.METHODOLOGIES FOR APPLIED PHYSICSExperimental methods and measurements: fundamental and derived physical quantities, dimensional analysis, systematic and random errors, error propagation.

1.Mechanics of the point particle (p.p.)

Vector exercises and vector calculation. Kinematics exercises: one-dimensional motion, two-dimensional motion. Dynamics exercises of p.p .: application of Newton's laws, friction force, inclined plane. Work and energy exercises: work of gravitational force, applications of the theorem of kinetic energy, applications of the energy conservation principle. Exercises regarding momentum and collisions: application of conservation of momentum, elastic and inelastic collisions.

2.Mechanics of rigid bodies

Rotational motion exercises and rotational variables. Exercises on application of: rotational kinetic energy, moment of inertia, torque, angular momentum. Exercises on applications of the second Newton's law in angular form. Exercises on the application of the conservation principle of angular momentum. Exercises regarding the equilibrium of a rigid body.

3.Fluidostatics and fluid dynamics

Exercises on applications of the Stevino's law, the Archimedes' principle. Exercises on applications of the Bernoulli's theorem.

4. Thermodynamics

Exercises on: thermodynamics system, heating, cooling, and temperature, ideal gases, first and second law of thermodynamics.

5.Electromagnetism

Exercises on applications of the Coulomb's law. Exercises on electric field and electrical potential. Exercises on electrical capacity and capacitors. Exercises on electric current, resistance and electrical circuits. Exercises on magnetic fields and magnetic force. Exercises on applications of the Faraday-Lenz law.INTERNSHIPIn addition to lectures and exercises, students will follow a theoretical-practical training (seminars and participation in research activities) that will be carried out in the laboratories of the Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technologies (ITAB)

Topics covered during the seminars will be:

1. Static problems applied to natural posture

2. Fluid static applied to gaseous exchanges in breathing

3. Fluid dynamics applied to the human cardio-circulatory system

4. The principles of thermodynamics applied to the human body

5. Brain electromagnetic signals and their detection

6. Magnetoencephalography

7. Images of the cerebral activity through Functional Magnetic Resonance

8. Functional Infrared Imaging

The planned traineeships are:

Physical Methodologies applied to Medicine - I phase

The aim of the internship is to provide students with a clear understanding of the scientific method and its correct use in clinical practice or research. The internship includes the introduction to basic notions of experimental physics, "modeling", "problem solving", statistics, as well as hints of bioethics, and their application in simple anthropometric measurements on voluntary subjects for the estimation of body parameters (such as density, surface, etc). The use of multimedia data processing and reporting tools is also envisaged.

Physical Methodologies applied to Medicine - II phase

In this second phase, five in-depth studies will be proposed to the students that will bring them into contact with advanced methodologies for measuring parameters related to movement, physical exercise, fluid dynamics, and respiratory mechanics.

Internship in the laboratories - III phase

Traineeships at the Functional Infrared Imaging Laboratory, the Magnetoencephalography Laboratory, the Functional Magnetic Resonance Laboratory