The chemistry of life: - Atoms and carbon molecules - Carbohydrates - Lipids - Proteins - Nucleic acids The organization of the cell: - Cell theory - Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells - The cell nucleus - The cytoplasmic organelles - The cytoskeleton - Cellular coatings The structure of biological membranes - The passage of materials through biological membranes - Active and Passive transport Cell communication and Signal transduction - Cell energy processes: - Biological work - The laws of thermodynamics - Energy and metabolism - The energy transfer in redox reactions The processes of aerobiosis and cellular anaerobiosis - fermentation Photosynthesis: The chloroplasts Eukaryotic chromosomes - The cell cycle and mitosis - Cell cycle regulation - Sexual reproduction and meiosis The gene expression: The transcription - Translation - Variation of gene expression in different organisms - The mechanisms of gene regulation: - Gene regulation in bacteria and in eukaryotic cells Development and differentiation: - Cell differentiation and nuclear equivalence Viruses and subviral agents: - Status and structure of viruses - Virus classification - Viral replication -Viruses and diseases Bacteria and archaeobacteria: - Reproduction and evolution of prokaryotes - Bacteria and illness The principles of immunity: - Cell-mediated immunity - Antibody-mediated immunity - Response to diseases, deficits, and harmful reactions The principles of endocrine regulation - The endocrine system of vertebrates Reproduction: - Asexual and sexual reproduction - Human reproduction - Fertilization Ecology of populations: - The characteristics of the populations - Changes in population size Community ecology: - The structure and functioning of the communities - The biodiversity of the communities Ecosystems and biosphere: - The energy flow through ecosystems - The cycles of matter in ecosystems Biodiversity and bioconservation: - biodiversity decline - conservation biology - climate changes Nucleic acid structures; genetic transmission through cell division; DNA duplication; DNA repair processes. DNA organization within cell compartments.; eukaryote/prokaryote DNA structure variations. Genetic code structure. Regulation in gene expression. Gene mutations, recombination and transposone activities. Mendelian monogenic inheritance, genotype/phenotype correlation, sex chromosome linked genes. - Patterns of inheritance of mendelian and non mendelian diseases: trinucleotide repeats disorders, multifactorial inheritance. - Tools for the study of genetic mutations: PCR, DNA sequencing, MLPA, NGS. Epigenetics and genomic imprinting diseases. Chromatin structure and function. Standard human karyotype. Sex chromosomes and determination of sex features. Chromosome banding and molecular cytogenetics. Genomic and chromosomal mutations. Cell proliferation genes and their dysregulation. Protoncogenes, oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Most recurrent genetic diseases in man. Population screening: newborn screening, carrier screening. Treatment of genetic disorders.