Objectives of the course of inorganic module:
Acquisition of the basic concepts of inorganic Chemistry
Description of contents:
Property of matter:
basic properties of matter. Classification of matter.
History of atomic structure and an introduction to quantum theory. The quantum model, the quantum atom, Shells an orbitals, filling electron shells, periodicity and electron configurations. Octet rule and exceptions.
Compounds and bonding:
overview of bonding, electronegativity, polar bonds, ionic bond, covalent bond, hydrogen bonding, molecular shape.
naming substances, formulas, stoichiometry, chemical equations, balancing equations, limiting reactants and percent yield. Types of chemical reactions, predicting chemical reactions.
definition of the oxidation number, redox reactions, oxidative states, oxidation number of organic molecules, electrochemistry.
Solubility. Density. Concentration units: molarity, molality, mole fraction, mole percent and, as relative units: mass percent, volume percent, soluble salts and insoluble salts.
Properties of solutions:
colligative properties: osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation and freezing point depression, Van’t Hoff factor. Raoult’s law.
basic concepts, temperature dependence of reaction rates; Arrhenius equation.
Acids and Bases:
definition of pH, properties and theories of acids and bases, titration, calculation of pH of weak acids and bases, pOH.
pH of Salt Hydrolysis. Buffer systems, application of the Henderson-Asselbalch equation. Reactivity of acids and bases. Degree of dissociation (). Ostwald’s Dilution Law.
Phases of matter:
definition of solids, liquids, gases, phase changes.
behaviour of gases, gas laws, Avogadro’s number.
equilibrium, Le Chatelier’s principle, acid-base equilibrium, concentrations at equilibrium. Chemical significance of Ka, Kb, pKa and pKb.
Objectives of the course of organic module:
Knowledge of the main classes of organic compounds (nomenclature, properties, reactivity, mechanisms). Understand the role and the impact of organic chemistry in the cellular chemistry (biochemistry). Basic knowledge of structure and properties of compounds of biological interest such as lipids, carbohydrates, aminoacids and nucleic acids.
Description of contents:
Historical background of organic compounds, Lewis structure, stick and ball structures.
Atomic structure and bonding (review): chemical bond (bond length, angle, energy polarity, dipole moment, molecular structure, hybridization of Carbon, Oxygen and Nitrogen, sp3, sp2, sp, Resonance. Arrhenius acidity, Brönsted acids and bases:
Ka and pKa, -OH bond acidity (carboxylic acids, phenols, alcohols) -CH bond acidity, Lewis acidity. Intermolecular forces: van der Waals, dipolar interaction, hydrogen bonding.
Type of organic reagents: Nucleophilic, Electrophilic and Radical reagents.
Alkanes (saturated hydrocarbons), linear and branched alkanes, cycloalkanes. Constitutional isomerism. Common names and systematic (IUPAC) nomenclature. Alkyl radicals, molecular models. Perspective and projective formulas. Conformations of ethane: Newman projection. Cyclohexane conformations, axial and equatorial bonds. Physical properties: boiling point, solubility. Natural sources of alkanes Cycloalkanes. Reactivity: radical reactions, halogenation and combustion reactions.
Alkenes and alkynes (unsaturated hydrocarbons). Nomenclature, configurational isomerism of alkenes (sis-trans notation), physical properties, naturally occurring alkenes. Electrophilic addition to alkenes: addition of hydrogen halides, molecular bromine and chlorine, water (acid-catalysed hydration). Markovnikov’s rule and carbocation stability. Reduction of alkenes: catalytic hydrogenation.
Stereochemistry. Chirality: stereogenic carbon atoms, enantiomers, racemic mixture, R,S and D,L notations. Optical activity and specific optical rotation. Compounds with two or more stereocenters; diastereomers, meso compounds.
Alkyl halides: nomenclature, properties and applications, Nucleophilic substitution reactions: SN1 and SN2 mechanisms (stereochemistry).
Alcohols, phenols, and thiols: nomenclature, natural occurrence, physical properties, comparison of acidity of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols. Preparation of lakesides. Dehydration and oxidation of alcohols. Conversion of alcohols in alkyl halides.
Aromatic compounds (Arenes): nomenclature and substituted benzenes, polycyclic compounds.
Heteroaromatic compounds, comparison basicity of pyridine and pyrrole, Huckel’s rule. Electrophilic aromatic substitution: mechanism, activation/deactivation and orientation effects in substituted benzenes, reasonance (C6H5-NH2, C6H5-OH, C6H5-NO2, C6H5-Halogen). Halogenation, nitration, sulfonation, Friedel-Crafts alkylation.
Amines: nomenclature, naturally occurrence, nucleophilicity. Basicity of Aliphatic and aromatic amines, heterocyclic aromatic amines.
Carbonyl compounds: aldehydes and ketones: nomenclature, natural occurrence, physical properties. Nucleophilic addition: hemiacetal, acetal and imine formation. Reduction and oxidation of carbonyl compounds. Keto-enol tautomerism. Aldol reaction and condensation.
Carboxylic acid: nomenclature, natural occurrence, physical properties. Conversion to acyl halides, anydrides, esters, amides. Basicity of amides and amines. Esters: nomenclature, natural occurrence, physical properties. Basic and acidic hydrolysis.
Lipids: triglycerides (fats, oils) basic hydrolysis, soap formation (mechanism), phospholipids, membranes.
Carbohydrates: classification, natural occurrence. Aldoses, Ketoses: Fischer and Haworth formulas, conformational representations. Reducing properties, Anomers, Epimers. Mutarotation. D-Glucose, D-Fructose, D-Ribose, D-2-deossi-Ribose D-Galactose. Disaccharides: Maltose, Cellobiose, Lactose, Saccharose. Polisaccharides: starch, glycogen, cellulose.
Peptides and proteins: L -amino acids structures, classification, Stereochemistry. Titration curves, peptide bonding formation, resonance of peptide bonding, Isoelectric point, pKaf-COOH and -NH2. Primary, secondary and tertiary structures. Hydrogen Bonding formation in-elix and -sheet structures.
Nucleosides and nucleotides, nucleic acids formation (DNA, RNA). Structures.