The theme of the course is civilizations, populations, archaeological realities that can be found in Italy before the Roman conquest, especially in the first millennium B.C. The course will have a first part that will cover the most recent phases of Italian prehistory and, above all, the protohistory that led to the birth of Italian "regional" cultures of which the Etruscans are an important element and the most well-known. First of all, will be examined the cultures attested in northern Italy: Veneti, the culture of Golasecca and Liguri and then Nuragic Sardenia. Particular attention will be paid to central Italy with Etruscans, Latins, Umbrians, Picenes, Sabines and Samnites. A specific module will be dedicated to the populations of the pre-Roman Abruzzo (Pretuzi, Vestini, Equi, Marsi, Peligni, Marrucini, Frentani, Carricini, Pentri).