MICROBIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY
Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells.
Naming and Classifying Microorganisms.
The bacterial cell: Size, shape and arrangements of bacteria.
Structures external to the cell wall: glycocalyx, flagella, pili and fimbriae. The cell wall: composition and characteristics; cell wall and Gram stain; atypical cell walls.
Structures internal to the cell wall: the plasma membrane; the cytoplasm; the nucleoid; plasmids and resistance factors; ribosomes.
Bacterial metabolism: aerobic respiration; anaerobic respiration and fermentation.
Bacterial division and generation time.
Bacterial spore: structure, types, sporulation and germination, and their protecting role in biocide resistance.
Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenesis: entry into the human body; adhesion, colonization and invasion; pathogenic actions of bacteria (tissue destruction, toxins); mechanisms for escaping host defenses. The main bacterial diseases.
Antibacterials and their mechanisms of action. Mechanisms of drug resistance.
Biology of Fungi: general characteristics, structure and classification. Fungal pathogenesis.
Characteristics and classification of viruses.
Virus structure: non-enveloped and enveloped viruses.
Viral replication: life cycle of viruses with animal and prokaryote hosts. The main viral diseases. Antiviral drugs.
Disinfection, sterilization and asepsis.
General EtiologyDisease concept. Health status and causes of illness. Intrinsic and extrinsic diseases. Physical and chemical agents as a cause of illness.InflammationCauses of inflammation. Plasmatic and tissue mediators of inflammation. The cells of inflammation. Stages of the inflammatory process: the vascular phase, the exudation, the diapedesis, the stasis. Exudate and transudate: different types of exudate. The proteins of the acute phase. Chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Morphological aspects of the inflammatory process: angioflogosis and histoflogosis. Outcomes of the inflammatory process.The feverThermoregulation. General response of the organism to heat and cold; alteration of thermogenesis; hypothermia and hyperthermia. Pathogenesis of fever: endogenous and exogenous pyrogens.OncologyClassification of tumors. Characteristics of the normal and transformed cell. Concepts of hyperplasia, hypertrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, anaplasia, neoplasia. Benign and malignant tumors. Carcinoma in "situ". Histogenetic classification and morphology elements of benign and malignant human tumors.Chemical carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis from ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. Stages of carcinogenesis: initiation, promotion and tumor progression. Viral carcerogenesis. DNA and RNA oncogenic viruses associated with human tumors.Concept of oncogene and antioncogene. Molecular pathology of DNA repair. Pathology of "mismatch repair" and "excision repair". Role of inheritance in tumors. Tumor syndromes with autosomal dominant and recessive transmission. Models: hereditary colorectal and breast tumors, Xeroderma pigmentosum and ataxia- telangiectasia.Pathology of the bloodQualitative and quantitative alterations of the production of red blood cells and hemoglobin. Anemia: general phenomena, classification and hereditary and acquired causes. α- and β-thalassemias: genetic heterogeneity, phenotypic and genotype- phenotype correlations.Pathology of haemostasis and coagulationThe platelet, hemocoagulative and fibrinolytic phase. The main disorders of haemostasis and coagulation. The main defects of the plasma and fibrinolytic (hemophilia) phases.ImmunologyAntigens and antibodies. Organs and cells of the immune system. The subclasses of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. The immune response. The main antigen-antibody reactions. Immediate and delayed hypersensitivity diseases. Deficiencies of the immune system. RH factor. Coombs test. Hemolytic disease of the newborn.
Molecular diagnostics of hereditary tumors.- Inflammatory diseases and carcinomas of the uterine cervix.- Molecular and clinical bases of endometrial tumors. Endometrial carcinoma and HNPCC.Hints on therapy.- Molecular and clinical bases of breast and ovarian tumors. Eligibility criteria for genetic testing. Treatment of breast cancer and ovary. Hints on molecular therapy.- Molecular and clinical bases of of the colon: Lynch syndrome -HNPCC, familial adenomatous polyposis of the colon-FAP, adenomatous polyposis of the colon associated with the MUTYH gene -MAP.- Molecular basis of familial gastric cancer: intestinal type and Diffuse type. Hints of therapy.- Molecular and clinical bases of pancreatic tumors, PanIN classification, outline of molecular therapy.- Overview of instrumental diagnostics (DHPLC, automatic sequencer).