Hours provided: 45.
Cellular physiology. Chemical-physical characteristics of the cell membrane; permeability; Passive and active transport mechanisms. Homeostasis. Definition of the concept of stability of the internal medium and regulations. Electrophysiology. Excitable tissues, excitability; Membrane potentials (rest and action); Conduction and transmission of the electrical signal; Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, receptor mechanisms; Chemical and electrical synapses; Central synapse and neuromuscular synapse. Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nerve System. Motor Nervous System and Sensory Systems. Sensomotor integration. The elements of the motor system; Motoneuroni and muscles; Control of movement and posture: the spinal cord; The trunk of the brain; The cerebral cortex; The basal ganglia; The cerebellum; Associative areas of the cerebral cortex. Integrative functions of the central nervous system. Sensory information, sensory information perception; Sensory receptors and organization of the somesthesic system; Muscular System. Contractile and mechanical properties of skeletal and smooth muscle fibers; Excitation-shortening-relaxation cycle in skeletal and smooth muscle. Mechanism of muscle contraction; Muscle metabolism; Hypothalamus and Autonomous Nervous System. Hypothalamic functions and hypothalamic reflex centers. Overview of anatomy, neurotransmitters and functions of the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System; Visceral reflexes and their integrating centers.
Cardiocirculatory system. Anatomical and physiological features of the heart muscle; Excitable tissues of the heart. Excitability, automatism, rhythmicity, conductivity, contractility. Pacemaker cells and conduction system: electrical properties; ECG; Working myocardium: electrical and mechanical properties; Contractability and its regulation; Cardiac metabolism; Law of all or nothing; Maestrini's Law - Frank - Starling; Laplace's law; Cardiac cycle; Cardiac output: measurement and regulation; Venous return; Arterial pressure: reflex and humoral measurement and regulation, short-term and long-term; Vascular compliance. Arterial pulse concept; Viscosity of the blood, laminar and turbulent motion. Law of hemodynamics: Poiseuille's law. Adaptation to physical exercise; Notes on district circles and microcirculation.
Blood: Blood components and functions: transport, immunity, hemostasis and homeostasis; Chemical-physical characteristics; Blood buffer systems and acid-base balance.
Respiratory System. Pulmonary and alveolar ventilation; Respiratory mechanics; definition of pulmonary and thoracopulmonary compliance; Volumes and lung capacity; Notes on pulmonary circulation; Ventilation-perfusion ratio; Exchange and transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide; Respiratory adaptations; Chemical regulation of ventilation: central and peripheral chemioceptors; Nerve regulation; Hypoxia; Hypercapnia.
Temperature control. Hypothalamic centers of body temperature control; Metabolic and mechanical thermogenesis; heat dispersion; Behavioral adaptations.
Physiology of Body Fluids. Indoor environment and its regulation.
Renal function. Hydro-electrolyte balance: nervous and hormonal control of the volume and electrolyte composition of body fluids: ADH and SRAA; Thirst control; The properties of the kidney: filtration, transport, secretion, reabsorption and excretion; Definition of renal clearance; Osmolar clearance and free water clearance. Concentration and dilution of urine; Endocrine function of the kidney; Renal control of acid-base balance.
Gastrointestinal system. Intestinal secretions; Nerve regulation, intrinsic and extrinsic, and hormonal of the digestive functions; Properties: motility, digestion, secretion and absorption of nutritive principles; Functions of the liver and pancreas.
Endocrine system. Neuroendocrine and endocrine glands; Negative feeback; Hypothalamus and Pituitary Axis: hormones and biological effects; Thyroid: hormones and biological effects; Surrene: hormones and biological effects; Parathyroids: hormones and biological effects; Pancreas: hormones and biological effects; Hormones and metabolism; Ovary: ovarian and menstrual cycle.