Part I: Chemistry
Know and describe the structure of the atom: nucleus and electrons, atomic models, quantum and orbital numbers, chemical elements and the periodic system.
Describe the chemical bond: octet rule, bond energy, ionization potential, electronegativity, metallic character of an element. Knowledge of the various types of bond: covalent (homeopolar, polar, dative), ionic, hydrogen, Van derWaals, metallic. Hybridization of orbitals. Brute and structural formulas. Oxidation and reduction concept.
Know the nomenclature of inorganic compounds. Atomic and mass number. Isotopes, atomic weight and gram atom, molecular weight and grammomolecule. Know the methods for determining the concentrations of the solutions: molarity, molality, normality, percent by weight and by volume.
Know the ideal gas laws: Avogadro's law, ideal gas equation of state, gas mixtures and partial pressures. Know and describe: osmosis and osmotic pressure, osmotic phenomena in the blood. Definition of homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, catalysts, endothermic and exothermic reactions, reaction rate, reaction order, reaction mechanism, chemical equilibria.
Know and describe electrolytic dissociations: strong and weak electrolytes, degree of dissociation. Definitions of acids and bases. Know and describe the dissociation of water, concept of pH, buffer systems, buffers in living systems, preparation of a buffer system.
Know the main types of reactions in organic chemistry.
Resonance concept. Knowledge and description of the organic functional groups and of the various oxidation stages of the carbon atom. Know and describe the main chemical and physical characteristics of the following classes of organic compounds: saturated and unsaturated linear and cyclic hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, benzene), polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatics (purines and pyrimidines). Alcohols, phenols, thiols, ethers, thioethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, oxyacids, ketoacids, anhydrides, esters. Nitrogen compounds: amines, amides, amino acids. Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Lipids: fatty acids, triglycerides, glycerophospholipids, cholesterol. Amino acids: general properties, classification, peptide bond.
Part II: Biochemistry
Know the chemical and general properties of proteins. Protein classification. Know and describe the structure of proteins (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary), the isoelectric point, simple and conjugated proteins.
Hemoglobin and myoglobin: structure and functions. Oxygenation curves and factors influencing affinity for oxygen. The methemoglobin. Notes on pathological hemoglobins.
Know and describe the general properties of enzymes: holoenzyme, apoenzyme, cofactors, the active site, enzyme-substrate complex, specificity, principles of enzymatic kinetics, Michaelis-Menten equation and constant, enzyme inhibition, allostery, enzyme classification.
Define the concept of metabolism: anabolism and catabolism.
Know and describe the carbohydrate metabolism: glycolysis, Krebs cycle, notes on gluconeogenesis, synthesis and demolition of glycogen. Know and describe the respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Know and describe lipid metabolism: fatty acid catabolism and anabolism, β-oxidation and ketogenesis. Know and describe the protidic metabolism: enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins, catabolism of amino acids, ureogenesis.
Control of energy metabolism and signal transduction.