Homeostasis. Biophysics of the cell membrane (permeability and transport). Membrane potentials: resting, electrotonic, action potentials. Propagation of potentials. The synapses.
Nervous and muscular system
Functional organization of the nervous system. Autonomous and somatic motor system: innervations, neurotransmitters and receptors, functions of autonomic nervous system. The neuromuscular junction. Skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle physiology: mechanical aspect of the muscular contraction.
Endocrine function: the hypothalamic-hypophysis-target axis.
The control of body metabolism.
Homeostasis of calcium and phosphate (parathormone, calcitonin and Vit D).
The common myocardium and the specific myocardium. The electrical activity of the heart: cardiac pacemakers and conduction system. ECG. Mechanical features of the heart: the cardiac cycle.
Structure and function of vessels, visco-elastic behavior, arterial pulse, blood pressure, blood volume, flow and resistance. Microcirculation and interstitial plasma-liquid exchanges. The laws of hydrostatics and hemodynamics. Control of cardiac output and systemic blood pressure.
Structure and function of the respiratory system. Respiratory mechanics. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Respiratory centers and breathing control (nervous, chemoceptive and mechanoceptive). Respiratory indexes: lung volumes and capacity. Alveolar exchanges and transport of gases in the blood.
The nephron. Filtration, re-absorption, secretion and excretion processes. The functions of the kidney (endocrine, control in hydro-saline and acid-base balance).
The gastrointestinal system.
Nervous and hormonal control of gastrointestinal functions. Digestion and absorption of the main nutrients. Functions of the exocrine pancreas, gallbladder and liver.
Fever, cell damage, general etiology, inflammation, adaptation, apoptosis, cell damage and death, cellular repair, immunopathology, oncological pathology, anemia, leukemia, haemostasis, circulatory system and lymphatic system