Chemistry and Biochemistry Program
Elements of chemistry
Matter, Atoms and molecules, Atomic model, Periodic system, Bonds (ionic, covalent, metallic), Aggregation states of matter, Solutions (concentration, osmotic pressure, osmolarity), Acidity and pH (buffer solutions).
Oxidation numbers in atoms and molecules (in particular of C).
Elements of Organic Chemistry
Characteristic of carbon derivatives (hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds), bonds sp3, sp2, sp. Functional groups (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, ethers, acetals, hemiacetals, ketals, haemichets, amides, amines.) Mixed functions (keto acids, amino acids, hydroxy acids) Aromatic compounds (benzene, purines, pyrimidines).
Polyalcohols with a carbonyl function (glucides, monosaccharides, disaccharides, glycogen, maltodextrin, starches, cellulose). Aldosis, Ketosis, Stereogenicity of anomeric carbon (L; D / R; S). Protidi (amino acids, peptide bond, proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary structure). Lipids (saturated, unsaturated, glycerol, triglycerides, reserve and membrane lipids, cholesterol, steroid hormones)
Free energy (ΔG ° / ΔG) at T and P Constants. Additivity principle, ATP / ADP energy, cellular free energy reserves (phosphocreatine, NAD + / NADH, FAD / FADH2 involvement in anabolic-catabolic reactions). Krebs cycle, mitochondria and oxidative phosphorylation. Electron transport chain,
Biological catalysts, Specificity, Adjustability, Cofactors, Coenzymes, prestetico group, apoenzyme, holoenzyme). Classification (Oxidoreductase, Transferase, Hydrolase, Liasis, Ligase isomerase)
Glucose entry into cells, Glycolysis, Regulation of glycolysis, entry into the Krebs cycle, fate of pyruvate (lactate conversion), Gluconeogenesis, extra-mitochondrial oxidation of glucose, metabolism of alcohol.
Metabolism of lipids.
Absorption, blood transport, β-oxidation of fatty acids. Metabolism of ketone bodies.
Special biochemistry: metabolism of the eye and mechanism of vision.