Excitable tissues. Rest potential, depolarization and hyperpolarization. Action potential. The cells of the nervous system. The neuron. Classification of nerve fibers. Propagation of action potential. Synapses. Neurotransmitters.
Hematopoietic organs and tissues. Red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets: their functions. The physiology of primary hemostasis. Emocoagulation factors and physiology of blood coagulation. Cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
Salivary glands: innervation of the main salivary glands, stimuli to the secretion. Physiology and intraoral defense mechanisms. Sensory perception of the orofacial territory: mechanoception, nociception, thermoception. Taste. Anatomical and functional organization of the trigeminal system. Trigeminal sensitivity, trigeminal pain. The dental pulp: function of the pulp nerves, nociceptive response. Mastication: chewing muscles and chewing mechanics. The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and its innervation.
-General etiology: concept of disease, etiology and pathogenesis. The causes of diseases such as alterations of organs and tissues. Intrinsic and extrinsic causes of disease. Environmental pathology: pathology caused by physical agents (heat, radiation), chemicals (acids and bases) and biological (pathogens) of the oral cavity.
- Cellular responses to microenvironment change: cellular adaptation
-Inflammation: acute inflammation; chronic inflammation; Granulomas, systemic phenomena of inflammation, fever.
-Healing of tissue lesions: regeneration and repair.
- Immunology and immunopathology of the oral cavity: the organization of the immune system. Natural and acquired immunity: mechanisms of humoral and cellular immunity (antibodies, antigens of the major histocompatibility complex, complement).
Immunopathological reactions: hypersensitivity and autoimmunity
-Oncology: Characteristics of benign and malignant tumor. Definition of oncogenes, and oncosuppressor genes. Tumor growth biology: growth and differentiation, angiogenesis, progression, invasive growth and metastasis.
Chemical carcinogenesis: carcinogens and their cellular interaction, phases of carcinogenesis.