Homeostasis. Biophysics of the cell membrane (permeability and transport). Membrane potentials: resting, electrotonic, action potentials. Propagation of potentials. The synapses.
Nervous and muscular system
Functional organization of the nervous system. Autonomous and somatic motor system: innervations, neurotransmitters and receptors, functions of autonomic nervous system. The neuromuscular junction. Skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle physiology: mechanical aspect of the muscular contraction.
Endocrine function: the hypothalamic-hypophysis-target axis.
The control of body metabolism.
Homeostasis of calcium and phosphate (parathormone, calcitonin and Vit D).
The common myocardium and the specific myocardium. The electrical activity of the heart: cardiac pacemakers and conduction. ECGEsystem. ECG. Mechanical features of the heart: the cardiac cycle.
Structure and function of vessels, visco-elastic behavior, arterial pulse, blood pressure, ECG. blood volume, flow and resistance.
Mechanical features of the heart: the cardiac cycle. Structure and function of vessels, viscoelastic behavior, arterial pulse, blood pressure, blood volume, flow and resistance.
Microcirculation and interstitial plasma-liquid exchanges. The laws of hydrostatics and hemodynamics. Control of cardiac output and systemic blood pressure.
Structure and function of the respiratory system. Respiratory mechanics. Ventilation-perfusion ratio. Respiratory centers and breathing control (nervous, chemoceptive and mechanoceptive). Respiratory indexes: lung volumes and capacity. Alveolar exchanges and transport of gases in the blood.
The nephron. Filtration, re-absorption, secretion and excretion processes. The functions of the kidney (endocrine, control in hydro-saline and acid-base balance).
The gastrointestinal system.
Nervous and hormonal control of gastrointestinal functions. Digestion and absorption of the main nutrients. Functions of the exocrine pancreas, gallbladder and liver.
- Etiology and pathogenesis: Causes of illness. Pathological effects of radiation, electric currents, thermal energy transfer, high and low temperatures: heat stroke, burns; frostbite, freezing, free radicals.
- Cellular adaptation and alterations of cell growth: hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, aplasia, hypoplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia, anaplasia.
- Cellular damage: reversible and irreversible. Ischemic and hypoxic damage. Vacuolar degeneration, hydropic and turbid swelling.
- Cell Death. Characteristics and phases of necrosis. Types of necrosis: coagulative, colliquative, caseous, fibrinoid). Physiological and pathological apoptosis. Autophagy
- Immune system: phenotypic, morphological and functional characteristics of cellular components, and soluble mediators of innate and specific immunity.
-Innnate immunity: physical barriers, cells of the innate response. Receptors for the recognition of pathogens. Effector mechanisms of innate immunity; Phagocytosis.
-Inflammatory process: Inflammation as a defensive process. Definition and causes of inflammation. Angioflogosis and histoplogosis. inflaCells of acute inflammatory process. Chemical mediators (Complement: pathways of activation and its biological functions, histamine, serotonin, arachidonic acid metabolites, cytokines). Exudates: types and composition, diversity from transudates. Diapedesis. Chemotaxis. Classification of acute inflammations (serous, fibrinous, catarrhal, purulent, necrotic-hemorrhagic,). Chronic inflammation. Granulomas: types. Systemic manifestations of the inflammatory process (acute phase proteins, leukocytosis, VES, endogenous and exogenous pyrogens, fever, thermal curves, organic and metabolic changes in fever). Resolution of inflammation. Regeneration and connective reintegration. Healing of wounds.
- Specific immunity: Antigens, definition and concept of hapten, epitope, immunogenicity.
Antibodies: structure and classes. Genetic bases of Ig structure. Molecular mechanisms underlying antibody diversity. Clonal selection theory. Antigen-antibody reaction: valence, affinity and avidity
Lymphocytic maturation: stages of maturation of B and T lymphocytes; Lymphocyte antigen recognition: B-cell (BcR) and T-cell (TcR) antigen receptor, d genetic bases of their structure. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC): Role in immune responses. Structure, function, cellular distribution and regulation of the expression of MHC class I and class II molecules. Characteristics of peptide-MHC interaction. Structural bases of the binding of peptides to MHC molecules. Processing and presentation of antigen to T lymphocytes
Activation of B and T lymphocytes: activation phases; effector mechanisms of humoral and cell-mediated specific immunity. Differentiation of CD4 + T lymphocytes in the subpopulations of T helper cells (TH) TH1, TH2 andTH17. Role of cytokines in the differentiation phase and in the functions of the effector T-subpopulations.
The rejection of transplants as an immune phenomenon
Immunopathology: Hypersensitivity (classification and pathogenetic mechanisms), autoimmunity (major organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases), immunodeficiencies (AIDS)
Functional study of I.R.
-Ocology: Definition of oncogenes and oncosuppressor genes. Characteristics and biological behavior of the tumor cell (autonomy, atypia, afinalism). Carcinogenesis. Multiphasic theory of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion, progression). Environmental carcinogenesis: chemical carcinogens. ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. Starting and promoting agents. Viral carcerogenesis. Benign and malignant tumors. Molecular mechanisms involved in invasion and metastasis. Stages of metastatisation. Immune surveillance: specific tumor antigens (TSTA, T antigens, embryonic antigens).