Principles of Pharmacokinetics: absorption, distribution, metabolism, half-life, elimination of drugs.
Principles of Pharmacodynamics: ionotropic and metabotropic receptors (G protein coupled receptors).
Mechanisms of signal transduction
Antihypertensive drugs: diuretics; centrally acting sympatholytic drugs; ganglionic blockers; Beta and alpha adrenergic receptor antagonists; direct acting vasodilators; calcium channel blockers; ACE-inhibitors (mechanisms of action, pharmacological properties, side effects)
Anti-inflammatory drugs: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, coxibs and antileukotriene drugs); steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: natural and synthetic glucocorticoids (mechanisms of action, pharmacological properties, side effects).
Bronchodilators: beta adrenergic receptor agonists (mechanism of action, pharmacological properties, side effects)
Drugs for the treatment of spasticity and acute muscle spasms: benzodiazepines; Baclofen, Dantrolene (Mechanism of action, pharmacological properties, side effects)
1. Introduction to Physiology.
1.1 Definition of Physiology and its areas of interest; concept of internal and external environment for the cell and for the organism; homeostasis concept.
1.2 General characteristics of plasma membranes; fluid mosaic model; integral and associated proteins; receptors and transport proteins; difference between carrier and channels.
1.3 The movement of substances through membranes and epithelia; concept of simple or mediated diffusion through the membranes; active transport; concept of simporto and antiporto: the examples of Na + / K + pump and of the Na + -glucose simulator; transport by vesicles: exocytosis, endocytosis and transcitosis.
2. Neuron physiology and generation of electrical signals.
2.1 Distribution of solutes in the various liquid compartments of the organism (schematic drawing); resting membrane potential; equilibrium potentials of Na + and K +.
2.2 The structure of the neuron (schematic drawing of its different parts); glial cells; myelin sheath; axonal transport.
2.3 The resting membrane potential of the neuron; changes in membrane potential and potential generation; concept of depolarization and hyperpolarization; the movement of ions across the membranes; the generations of potential graduates (chart); concept of potential sub-threshold and above-ground levels (graph); spatial and temporal summation of potential graduates; action potential (graph); absolute and relative refractory periods (graph).
2.4 Communication between neurons: chemical synapses (schematic drawing of its different parts) and electrical ones; mechanisms of release and inactivation of neurotransmitters in chemical synapses; concept of convergence and divergence of the signal; concept of stimulus intensity and role of the discharge frequency in the release of the neuro-transmitter.
3. Central Nervous System (CNS): structure and function.
3.1 Communication and integration between different systems of our organism; introduction to the central nervous system; brain and spinal cord; gray matter (or substance) and white matter (or substance) in the brain and in the spinal cord; spinal cord structure; meninges; cerebrospinal fluid; cerebral ventricles and chorioid plexuses; hematoencephalic barrier.
3.2 Structure and function of the brain: encephalic trunk (bulb, bridge and midbrain); the cerebellum; the diencephalon and the homeostatic control centers (thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary and epiphysis); the telencephalon and the cerebral cortex; ganglia of the base; limbic system: amygdala, cingulum track and hippocampus.
3.3 Brain functions: organization of the cortex in sensory, associative and motor areas; concept of cerebral lateralization; the behavioral status system; diffused modulator systems.
4. Peripheral Nervous System (SNP): afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor-somatic and autonomous) pathways.
4.1 General properties of sensory systems; types of sensory receptors; generator and receptor potential; concept of primary and secondary receptive field; spatial resolution of the stimulus; encoding and processing of sensory stimuli (marked line code, population coding, frequency coding); concept of lateral inhibition; receptor adaptations; the somatosensory pathways and cortex; touch and heat receptors; nociceptors and the retraction reflex; gate-control theory.
4.2 The autonomic nervous system or: sympathetic and parasympathetic branch; the centers of homeostatic control of the encephalic trunk and of the thalamus; localization of the cell bodies of autonomic neurons in the spinal cord; differences and similarities between sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways: localization of pre-ganglional neurons and ganglia; neurotransmitters and adrenergic and cholinergic receptors; neuro-effector junction.
4.3 The somatic motor system: motoneurone and motor unit; localization of the motor bodies of the motor neurons in the spinal cord; neuromuscular junction (schematic drawing of its different parts); acetylcholine, nicotinic receptors, and translation of the signal to the driving plate; signal termination mechanisms.
5. Skeletal and Smooth Muscle: structure and function.
5.1 The three types of muscle of our organism: skeletal, cardiac, smooth; general structure of skeletal muscle fiber: myofibrils, sarcomeres, and membrane systems.
5.2 The excitation-contraction coupling mechanism (EC) and the electrical signal transduction in chemical; transversal tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum; the voltage sensor (DHPR); the Ca2 + release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (RyR); the triads or calcium release units (schematic drawing of its different parts); differences between skeletal and cardiac EC coupling.
5.3 The sarcomere (schematic drawing of the organization of filaments, lines, and bands); the main sarcomere proteins: contractile, regulatory and accessory; role of troponin and tropomyosin in the activation of the contraction; myosin head cycle; voltage length regulation curve of the sarcomere (graph); concept of motor unit and recruitment.
5.4 Classification of muscle fibers based on metabolism and rate of contraction; classification in red and white fibers; functional differences between slow, intermediate and fast fibers.
5.5 Mechanism of contraction: relationship between electrical events and mechanical events; simple shock (graph), summation (graph), incomplete and complete tetanus (graphs); definition of fatigue (and graph); definition of isometric and isotonic contraction (and role of elastic and contractile components). Concept of motor unit and recruitment.
5.6 General characteristics of smooth muscle cells; organization of thick and thin myofilaments in smooth cells; molecular mechanisms of contraction: role of calmodulin and phosphorylation of the myosin light chain.
6. Physiology of the Cardiovascular System.
6.1 Introduction to the cardiovascular system: anatomy and general functions.
6.2 The heart (schematic drawing): pacemaker and contractile tissue; contractile myocardial cells and intercalary disks (schematic drawing); the conduction system (schematic drawing of its various components); the potential of pacemaker cells (graph); the action potential of contractile cells (graph); the electrocardiogram (graph); the cardiac cycle explained with the 5 phases; the cardiac cycle explained with the pressure-volume curve of the left ventricle (graph); cardiac output (formula); Frank-Starling's law (graph).
6.3 Small and large circulation; arterial pressure and its measurement (concept of systolic pressure and diastolic pressure); mean arterial pressure and factors affecting it; structure of blood vessels: differences between arteries and veins; role of arteries and veins in helping the heart to pump blood; regulation of arterial pressure and baroceptive reflex (schematic drawing of its functioning).
6.4 Blood (plasma and corpuscular component); plasma composition; corpuscular component: red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets; hematocrit concept; hematopoiesis; hemostasis and coagulation.
7. Physiology of the Respiratory System.
7.1 Introduction to the respiratory system: anatomy and general functions; the reason for an internalized respiratory system; upper and lower airways; structure of the lung and alveoli; the pleura and their role; inspiratory and expiratory muscles; concepts of lung compliance and elasticity; concept of instability of the alveoli; the 4 phases of external respiration.
7.2 Ventilation (inhalation and exhalation) and gaseous exchange with blood; the laws of gas; muscles involved in ventilation at rest and under stress; ventilatory mechanics; spirometry and measurement of pulmonary volumes and capacities (graph); concept of pulmonary and alveolar ventilation (formulas); alveolar gaseous exchange; hyperventilation curve and hypoventilation (graph).
7.3 Gaseous blood transport and gaseous exchange with tissues; transport of O2; hemoglobin / O2 dissociation curve (graph); pH effect (Bohr effect) and temperature on the dissociation curve; blood transport of CO 2 and effect on blood pH.
7.4 Reflex control and ventilation regulation (schematic drawing of its operation);
respiratory centers of the bulb and of the bridge; dorsal and ventral respiratory nuclei; central and peripheral chemoreceptors.
8. The Kidney and the Water Balance.
8.1 Introduction to the urinary system: urinary tract and kidney (cortex and medullary), main functions of the kidneys. The nephron: tubular elements and vascular elements, structure of the renal corpuscle, the four fundamental processes (filtration, reabsorption, secretion, excretion), filtration fraction, filtration pressure, self-regulation of the filtration speed, myogenic response and tubulo-glomerular feedback.
8.2 Water balance and role of the kidney in its regulation: vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone, countercurrent exchange in the loop of Henle.
- Elements of blood pathophysiology: hematopoiesis, anemia, alteration of leukocytes and platelets.
- Physiopathology of the circulatory system: hyperemia, ischemia, hemorrhage, hypertension and hypotension, thrombosis, embolism and infarction.
- Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: alterations of lipoproteins, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.
Physiopathology of the respiratory system: pulmonary edema, pulmonary fibrosis, pleurisy, pneumothorax.
- Type I and type II diabetes mellitus, and pathophysiological aspects of diabetic syndrome.
- Elements of liver pathophysiology: viral hepatitis, jaundice and cirrhosis.
- Muscle tissue pathophysiology: primary myopathies, myopathies associated with motor neuron diseases, neuromuscular transmission alteration.
- concept of illness and morbid state
- biological, chemical and physical agents as a cause of illness
Acute inflammation (angioflogosis):
- vascular changes
- cells of the inflammatory process (properties, functions, leukocyte formula)
-chemiotaxis (leukocyte activation and phagocytosis)
- information about the exudate: characteristics, function, types of exudate, reabsorption of the exudate
-muscle chemical agents (property, function, mechanism of action): vasoactive amines, the complement, the coagulation system, arachidonic acid metabolites, cytokines and chemokines
Chronic inflammation (histoplogosis):
-cause and histological features
- morphological frameworks of acute and chronic inflammation
Systemic manifestations of inflammation (fever)
Healing process: resolution, repair and regeneration
- epidemiology and classification of tumors
-the molecular basis of cancer (oncogenes and tumor suppressors)
-mechanisms of invasion and metastatisation