- Epithelial Tissue, exocrine and endocrine glands;
- Connective Tissue: connective, adipose, carstilaginous, bone and haematopoietic tissue;
- Muscolar tissue: skeletal, cardiac and smooth;
- Nervous tissue.
- Embryological tissues development.
Introduction to cell biology
The cell theory. General characteristics of eukaryotic cell, prokaryotic cell and Virus
Composition of living matter: Biological molecules
Proteins (structure and function). Amino acids (general physical and chemical properties).
Nucleic Acids (structure and function). Purine and pyrimidine bases, nucleotides and nucleosides. DNA structure. RNA structure.
Carbohydrates (structure and function: Monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides).
Lipids (structure and function).
The cell and energy. The flow of energy. Metabolic reactions. Role of ATP and cellular work. Energy metabolism. Cellular respiration: glycolysis, Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
Cytoplasmic organelles : rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes and nucleus (nuclear pores, nucleolus and chromatin). Cytoskeleton: microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments.
DNA double-helix structure and replication. Various levels of organization of DNA in the cell: nuclear chromatin and chromosome structure. Eukaryotic gene structure. RNA: structure, function and types. Transcription and RNA processing. Genetic code. Protein synthesis. Gene regulation in prokaryotes (lactose operon and tryptophan operon). Gene regulation in eukaryotes. Cell cycle and its regulation. Mitosis and Meiosis: stages and differences.
Biological membranes: structure and function.
Chemical composition, structure and models of organisation.
Mechanisms of transport across the membrane: simple and facilitated diffusion, active transport (sodium-potassium pump), exocytosis and endocytosis. Receptor-mediated endocytosis.
Cellular and Cell-environment interactions:
Signal transduction. Cell junctions (desmosomes, tight junctions, gap junctions). Extracellular matrix.
Introduction to the study of Human Anatomy;
Osteoarticular apparatus: skull, vertebral column, rib cage, pelvis, arms and legs. Classification and structure of joints.
Muscular apparatus: Diaphragm, muscles of the abdominal wall. Urogenital diaphgram. Muscles of thorax and limbs.
Nervous system: central nervous system, spinal cord, encefalic nerve nuclei, reticular formation. Meninges and liquoral circulation. Spinal and cranic nerves. Periferic nervous system: structure, neurotransmitters. Autonomous nervous system.
Blood circulatory apparatus: heart, pulmonary and system circulations. Circle of Willis, portal systems.
Respiratory apparatus: respiratory ways and lungs.
Digestive apparatus: digestive canal. Liver, pancreas.
Excretory apparatus: kydneys, urinary tracts.