Applied Biology module1. Introduction to the fundamental characteristics of living matter: in particular to know how to describe
-The general characteristics of the various living organisms
-The levels of biological organization
-The need for the existence of a flow of intracellular information between cells and between multicellular individuals.
-The theory of evolution as a unifying concept of biology.
-The importance in the biology of the hierarchical organization (classification system)
-The need for a continuous supply of energy in biological systems.
-The importance of acquiring a scientific method.
2. Fundamental characteristics of the atoms and molecules that form the basis of the chemistry of life. In particular, to be able to describe:
-Carbon atoms and organic molecules.
- Nucleic acids
-The identification of biological molecules
3. Fundamental characteristics of the cellular organization. In particular, to be able to describe:
-The importance of cell theory.
-The study methods of cellular structure.
-The differences and similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
-Structure and function of the membrane nucleus and organelles.
- Structure and function of the cytoskeleton.
-Structure and function of the extracellular matrix.
4. Basic features of biological membranes. In particular, to be able to describe:
-The structure of biological membranes
-The functions of membrane proteins
- The permeability of the membrane
- Passive and active transport mechanisms.
- Exocytosis and endocytosis
-the role and the various forms of junctions between cells.
5. Key features of cellular communication. In particular, to be able to describe:
- Send signals
-Transduction of the signal
- Responses to signals
-The evolution of cellular communication.
6. Fundamental characteristics of the study of energy applied to metabolism. In particular, to be able to describe:
- Organic work
-The laws of thermodynamics
-Energy and Metabolism
-The structure and functions of enzymes.
7. The synthesis of ATP in cells. In particular, to be able to describe:
- Redox reactions
-The four stages of Aerobic Breathing
-The energy yield of nutrients other than glucose
- Anaerobic respiration and fermentation
8. Chromosomes, mitosis and meiosis. In particular, to be able to describe:
- Eukaryotic chromosomes
-The cell cycle and mitosis
-The regulation of the cell cycle
- Sexual reproduction and meiosis
9. DNA as a depository molecule of genetic information. In particular, to be able to describe:
-The evidence that DNA is the hereditary material
- The DNA structure
- DNA replication
10. Gene expression. In particular, to be able to describe:
- Discovery of the gene-protein relationship.
-The flow of information from DNA to proteins: general
- The transcription
-The variations of gene expression
11. Gene regulation. In particular, to be able to describe:
-Gene regulation in prokaryotic cells
-Gene regulation in eukaryotic cells
12. Fundamental characteristics and the differences between living systems. In particular, to be able to describe:
-Viruses and subviral agents
- Virus Structure
- Virus classification
- Viral replication
- Viral diseases
- Virus Evolution
- Subviral agents
13. Bacteria and archaeabacteria
-The structure of bacteria and archaeobacteria
- Reproduction and evolution of prokaryotes
- Nutritional and metabolic adaptations
-The phylogeny of the two domains of prokaryotes
-The impact of the procarities on ecology, technology and commerce.
- Bacteria and diseases Human Anatomy moduleLocomotor systemOverview, classification and structure of bones. In a general manner and classification of the joints. n a general manner classification of muscles and tendons.Head: bones of the cranial box, bones of the massive facial. Trunk: vertebral column (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum and coccyx). Chest (ribs and sternum). Scapular girdle (scapula and clavicle) and scapulo-humeral articulation. Upper limb (humerus, radius, ulna, carpus, metacarpus and phalanges). Pelvic girdle (ileum, ischio and pubis) and coxo-femoral joint. Lower limb (femur, tibia, fibula, tarsus, metatarsal and phalanges) and knee jointEndocrine systemPituitary, Thyroid, Adrenal: in a general manner.Central nervous systemIn a general manner: systematic, topographic, clinical radiological anatomySpinal cord. Encephalous (brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon, telencephalon)Peripheral nervous systemSympathetic System: Orthosympathetic and ParasympatheticCardiocirculatory systemHeart: location and topography. Structure and function of the valves. Functional anatomy of the circulatory system: arteries, veins and capillaries. The small circulation and the great circulation. Aorta and its primary branches of division. Lymphatic system: general characteristics of the lymphatic circulation. Lymph node stations of the head, neck, thorax, upper limb and lower limb. Main lymphatic trunks. Lymph nodes. Spleen: form, position, relationships and structure.Respiratory systemNose, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and pulmonary parenchyma.Pleure and respiratory mechanicsDigestive systemVestibule of the mouth, oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus and stomach. Small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum), large intestine. Liver and biliary ways. Pancreas.Urinary apparatusKidney, calyxes and renal pelvis. Ureters. Urinary bladder. Male and female urethra.Male Genital SystemTesticles. Spermatic ways. External genital organs.Female Genital ApparatusOvary. Genital ways. External genital organs.Endocrine systemPituitary, Thyroid, Adrenal: in a general manner.Histology module- Embryological origins of tissues and basic cell differentiation and tissue regeneration.-The stem cell.- Methods of study in Histology- Epithelial tissue: coating; exocrine and endocrine glands-Connective tissue: Connectival, adipose, cartilaginous, bone, haematopoietic and Blood- Muscular tissue: skeletal, cardiac and smooth- Nervous tissueMedical Genetics Module1. Describe the processes of Mitosis, Meiosis, duration of the phases and regulation of the cell cycle2. Within the structure of the Nucleic Acids, to illustrate the general characteristics of the DNA. Describe the flow of genetic information from one cell generation to another and describe DNA duplication and repair. Describe the various levels of DNA organization in the cell. To illustrate the organization of the genome and extranuclear DNA.3. Within the mechanisms of production of genetic variability illustrate the phenomena of gene mutation, recombination and transposition4. To illustrate the monofattorial mendelian inheritance, the analysis of the phenotype, the inheritance of genes associated with sex, genealogical trees, associated genes and their transmission and non-traditional heredity. Also illustrate the particularities of Mendel's laws and multifactorial inheritance.5. To know the main characteristics of the chromatin, the gene families contained in it and the gene polymorphisms.6. Knowing how to describe the normal human karyotype and its variations. Describe the sex chromosomes and the determination of sex. Knowing genomic and chromosomal mutations. Illustrate the concept of fragile site. Knowing how to explain the main methods of chromosome banding and molecular cytogenetics.7. To know the genes that regulate cell proliferation and the mechanisms that lead to their dysregulation.8. Know the hemoglobins and their modifications.9. To know the imprinting, the mechanisms that determine it and the mechanisms that alter it.10. Describe the main techniques of analysis and manipulation of DNA and the main applications of genetic engineering techniques.