1.Basic characteristics of living matter. In particular, to be able to describe:
- the general characteristics of the various living organs
- the choice of the existence of intracellular information, between cells and between multicellular individuals.
-the theory of evolution as a unifying concept of biology.
- the importance in hierarchical biology (classification system)
- the need for a continuous supply of energy in biological systems.
- the importance of acquiring a scientific method.
2. Fundamental characteristics of the topics and molecules concerning the basis of the chemistry of life. In particular, to be able to describe:
- the structure of atoms, of the molecules and their respective ability to interact (chemical bonds and molecular interactions).
- the importance of water for carrying out vital functions.
-the chemical-physical and biological properties of organic macromolecules: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids.
3. Basic cellular features. In particular, to be able to describe:
- the importance of cell theory.
- how to study the cellular structure.
-the differences and similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
- structure and function of cell organelles.
- structure and function of the cytoskeleton.
-structure and function of the extracellular matrix.
4. Basic features of biological membranes. In particular, to be able to describe:
- the structure and functions that regulate the interaction between cells.
- passive and active transport mechanisms.
-the role and the various forms of junctions between cells.
5. Fundamental characteristics of the flow of energy through living organisms. In particular, to be able to describe:
- the principles of thermodynamics applied to biological systems.
- the structure and functions of enzymes.
- anabolic and catabolic reactions.
- energy transfer: redox reactions.
- the metabolic pathways of energy release.
- the mechanisms of ATP production in aerobiosis and anaerobiosis.
- the regulation of cellular respiration.
6. Fundamental characteristics of the flow of genetic information in living organisms. In particular, to be able to describe:
- the structure and function of chromosomes, mitosis and meiosis.
-the DNA: a macromolecular depository of the genetic information of living matter.
-RNA and protein synthesis: mechanisms that regulate gene expression.
- gene regulation: control of the existence of genes.
7. Fundamental characteristics of the fundamental principles of systematics. In particular, to be able to describe:
-Viruses and bacteria (bacteriophages, lithic reproductive cycle, temperate viruses, animal and plant viruses, viroids and prions, archaea bacteria and eubacteria).