Structure and binding in organic molecules. Hybridization of the carbon atom. Redox states of Carbon. Types of organic reactions: addition, elimination, substitution. Reaction mechanisms: radical and polar. Types of Reagents: electrophilic, nucleophilic and radical.
Classes of carbon compounds, nomenclature, physical properties, their characteristic reactions of biological interest: Saturated, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. Functional groups: alcohols, enols, phenols and thiols; carbonyl compounds: aldehydes, ketones, ac. carboxylic and their derivatives. The amines.
Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Lipids: fatty acids, simple lipids, complex lipids and steroids.
Proteins: amino acids and the peptide bond, peptides.
Nucleic acids: purine and pyrimidine bases, nucleotides and nucleosides, the phosphodiester bond, structure and function of DNA and RNA.