The atom: nucleus, electrons, orbitals, hybrid orbitals.
The molecule: simple chemical bond, double, triple, bond orbitals, covalent, ionic, hydrogen bond.
Energy in chemistry: binding energy, heat and temperature
The periodic table: meaning of groups and periods.
Material aggregation states: gases, liquids, solids; weak interactions. The concept of mole; Avogadro's number.
Gaseous mixtures; solutions; concentration; osmotic pressure.
Chemical reactions: balance and kinetics. Oxidation-reduction reactions.
Chemical equilibrium in solution: electrolytes, water self-protection.
The pH: strong and weak acids and bases; buffers; hydrolysis, titrations.