- General principles of endocrine physiology
Homeostasis concept. Hormones: classification, biosynthesis, secretion. Blood transport and binding to plasma proteins, free quota. Circadian rhythms and hormonal secretion.
- Hypothalamic-pituitary axis
Role of the hypothalamus in the control of hormonal secretion. Hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells. Functional aspects of the pituitary portal circle. Neurohypophysis hormones: oxytocin and vasopressin. Adenohypophysis. Endocrine growth regulation (GH). Prolactin. Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis: TSH, thyroid hormones T3 and T4. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, ACTH, cortisol, aldosteone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).
- Endocrine regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism
Physiological role of calcium and phosphorus. Distribution and metabolism. Regulation of blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Integrated regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism.
- Blood glucose control
Pancreatic islet hormones: insulin, glucagon. Effects on glucose, lipid and protein metabolism. Mutual and complementary interactions of pancreatic hormones.
- The adrenal medulla
Catecholamines and adrenergic receptors. Biological effects