Physiological functions that have circadian rhythms
The metabolism of carbohydrates
the respiratory and cardiovascular system
￼General concept of health, disease and homeostasis. Intrinsic and extrinsic pathogenic factors. The environment as a cause of illness: pathology from physical, chemical and biological agents. Radiation disorders, immediate and late effects; electric currents, high and low temperatures: heat stroke, burns; freezing. Trauma disorders.
￼-Cellular adaptation: hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, aplasia, hypoplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia, anaplasia.Cell death. Apoptosis. Characteristics and phases of necrosis. Types of coagulative necrosis, colliquative, caseous, fibrinoid).
-Inflammation. Angioflogosis: phases and evolution (vascular changes, cellular events, chemical mediators). Exudate. Histoflogosis: phases and evolution. Granulomas. Systemic manifestations of inflammation. Regeneration, repair (granulation tissue, scar tissue) and wound healing. -Immunology and Immunopathology. Non-specific and specific immunity. Mechanisms of the humoral and cell-mediated response (antibodies, antigens of the major histocompatibility complex, complement). Hypersensitivity reactions of type I, II, III and IV and related diseases. -Oncology. Characteristics of benign and malignant neoplasms. Classification criteria for neoplasms. Definition of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Tumor growth biology: cell differentiation, tumor progression, invasiveness and metastasis.
Environmental carcinogenesis. Starting and promoting agents. Phases of carcinogenesis.
Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells.
Naming and Classifying Microorganisms.
The bacterial cell: Size, shape and arrangements of bacteria.
Structures external to the cell wall: glycocalyx, flagella, pili and fimbriae.
The cell wall: composition and characteristics; cell wall and Gram stain; atypical cell walls.
Structures internal to the cell wall: the plasma membrane; the cytoplasm; the nucleoid; plasmids and resistance factors; ribosomes.
Bacterial metabolism: aerobic respiration; anaerobic respiration and fermentation.
Bacterial division and generation time.
Bacterial spore: structure, types, sporulation and germination, and their protecting role in biocide resistance.
Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenesis: entry into the human body; adhesion, colonization and invasion; pathogenic actions of bacteria (tissue destruction, toxins); mechanisms for escaping host defenses.
Antibacterials and their mechanisms of action. Mechanisms of drug resistance.
Biology of Fungi: general characteristics, structure and classification. Fungal pathogenesis.
Characteristics and classification of viruses.
Virus structure: non-enveloped and enveloped viruses.
Viral replication: life cycle of viruses with animal and prokaryote hosts. Antiviral drugs.
Disinfection, sterilization and asepsis.
Microbiological risk assessment.
Italian decree law: Titolo X D. Lgs 81/08.
Prevention and protection techniques in the workplace.
Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP).
Food and water safety and control.