Carbohydrates: structure of the main monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides of nutritional interest. Nutritional sources. Energy value. Digestion of polysaccharides and absorption of glucose, galactose and fructose. Lactose intolerance. Role of carbohydrates available in the diet. Glycemic index of a food. Dietary fiber: soluble and insoluble. Recalls of dynamic biochemistry: glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, glycogen synthesis and degradation, alcoholic fermentation and lactic fermentation, Cori cycle, pentose phosphate pathway.
Lipids: Classification and chemical composition. Nutritional sources and energy value. Fatty acids of nutritional interest: saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated. Trans fatty acids. Lipid requirements. Essential fatty acids. Families ω-6 and ω-3. Food cholesterol and endogenous cholesterol. Plasma lipoproteins. Recalls of dynamic biochemistry: digestion and absorption of triglycerides and cholesterol. Synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids. Cholesterol synthesis.
Bioenergetics: recalls of dynamic biochemistry: Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative stress: reactive oxygen species and their scavenging.
Proteins: General, nutritional meaning and energetic value. Amino acids: functional, nutritional and metabolic classification. Body protein turnover. The nutritional value of proteins. Food classification in terms of protein source. Alterations of amino acid metabolism: methionine and homocystinuria, phenylalanine and phenylketonuria. Recalls of dynamic biochemistry: degradation of amino acids and urea cycle, glucose-alanine cycle. Glucogenic, ketogenic and mixed amino acids.
Water and mineral salts: water as food, water requirements, alterations in water balance. Macro minerals: sodium, potassium and chloride; calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Trace elements: iron, copper, zinc, iodine, fluorine, chromium and selenium. Food sources and bioavailability, deficiency and toxicity.
Alcoholic beverages and natural stimulants: Absorption, distribution and metabolism of ethanol. Effect of ethanol on nutritional status, on CNS, cardiovascular system, body temperature. Amount of alcohol allowed in the diet. CNS stimulants: coffee, tea, cocoa. Effects of caffeine.
Vitamins: nutritional meaning and relationships with metabolism. Fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K, their biochemical action and deficiency, recommended needs, food sources and toxicity. Water-soluble vitamins: group B, antianemic vitamins, ascorbic acid, their biochemical action and deficiency, recommended needs, food sources.
Regulation of energy metabolism: regulation of enzymatic activity: allosteric isozymes and isoenzymes. Regulation by phosphorylation / dephosphorylation. Metabolic changes in the fasting-feeding cycle with reference to hepatic, muscular, adipose and nervous tissue. Hormonal regulation: insulin, glucagon and adrenaline.