Human anatomy module
Overview, classification and structure of bones. In a general manner and classification of the joints. n a general manner classification of muscles and tendons. Head: bones of the cranial box, bones of the massive facial. Trunk: vertebral column (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum and coccyx). Chest (ribs and sternum). Scapular girdle (scapula and clavicle) and scapulo-humeral articulation. Upper limb (humerus, radius, ulna, carpus, metacarpus and phalanges). Pelvic girdle (ileum, ischio and pubis) and coxo-femoral joint. Lower limb (femur, tibia, fibula, tarsus, metatarsal and phalanges) and knee joint
Pituitary, Thyroid, Adrenal: in a general manner.
Central nervous system
In a general manner: systematic, topographic, clinical radiological anatomy Spinal cord. Encephalous (brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon, telencephalon)
Peripheral nervous system
Sympathetic System: Orthosympathetic and Parasympathetic
Heart: location and topography. Structure and function of the valves. Functional anatomy of the circulatory system: arteries, veins and capillaries. The small circulation and the great circulation. Aorta and its primary branches of division.
general characteristics of the lymphatic circulation. Lymph node stations of the head, neck, thorax, upper limb and lower limb. Main lymphatic trunks. Lymph nodes. Spleen: form, position, relationships and structure.
Nose, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and pulmonary parenchyma. Pleure and respiratory mechanics
Vestibule of the mouth, oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus and stomach. Small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum), large intestine. Liver and biliary ways. Pancreas.
Kidney, calyxes and renal pelvis. Ureters. Urinary bladder. Male and female urethra.
Male Genital System
Testicles. Spermatic ways. External genital organs.
Female Genital Apparatus
Ovary. Genital ways. External genital organs.
Pituitary, Thyroid, Adrenal: in a general manner.
Applied Biology Module
1. Basic characteristics of living matter. In particular, to be able to describe:
- the general characteristics of the various living organisms
- the need for the existence of a flow of intracellular information between cells and between multicellular individuals.
-the theory of evolution as a unifying concept of biology.
- the importance in the biology of the hierarchical organization (classification system)
- the need for a continuous supply of energy in biological systems.
- the importance of acquiring a scientific method.
2. Basic characteristics of atoms and molecules that form the basis of the chemistry of life. In particular, to be able to describe:
- the structure of atoms, of the molecules and their respective ability to interact (chemical bonds and molecular interactions).
- the importance of water for carrying out vital functions.
-the chemical-physical and biological properties of organic macromolecules: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids.
3. Basic features of cellular organization. In particular, to be able to describe:
- the importance of cell theory.
- how to study the cellular structure.
-the differences and similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
- structure and function of cell organelles.
- structure and function of the cytoskeleton.
-structure and function of the extracellular matrix.
4. Basic features of biological membranes. In particular, to be able to describe:
- the structure and functions that regulate the interaction between cells.
- passive and active transport mechanisms.
-the role and the various forms of junctions between cells.
5. Fundamental characteristics of the flow of energy through living organisms. In particular, to be able to describe:
- the principles of thermodynamics applied to biological systems.
- the structure and functions of enzymes.
- anabolic and catabolic reactions.
- energy transfer: redox reactions.
- the metabolic pathways of energy release.
- the mechanisms of ATP production in aerobiosis and anaerobiosis.
- the regulation of cellular respiration.
6. Basic features of the flow of genetic information in living organisms. In particular, to be able to describe:
- the structure and function of chromosomes, mitosis and meiosis.
-the DNA: a macromolecular depository of the genetic information of living matter.
-RNA and protein synthesis: mechanisms that regulate gene expression.
- gene regulation: mechanisms that allow the control of gene expression.
7. Fundamental characteristics and the differences between living systems together with the most important principles of systematics. In particular, to be able to describe:
-Viruses and bacteria (bacteriophages, lithic reproductive cycle, temperate viruses, animal and plant viruses, viroids and prions, archaea bacteria and eubacteria).
Embryonic tissues derivation.
- Cellular differentiation and tissue regeneration.
- Stem cell.
- Epithelial Tissue: covering epithelial tissue, glandular epithelium (exocrine, endocrine).
- Connective Tissue: Proper Connective Tissue, Adipose Tissue, Support Connective Tissue (Cartilage and Bone), Blood and haemopoiesis.
- Muscle Tissue: striated muscular tissue (Skeletal and Cardiac), Smooth muscular tissue.
- Nervous Tissue