- Overview of the general organization of the eukaryotic cell and the main chemical constituents of cells and tissues - Methods of study in cytology and histology: optical and electronic microscopy techniques; tissue preparation for microscopic examination; cell cultures; principles of histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization - Plasma membrane: structure and ultrastructure; specializations and functions of the membrane and of the cell surface; permeability and transport; cell-environment interactions - Intracellular membrane systems: structure and functions of the smooth and granular endoplasmic reticulum and of the Golgi apparatus; endocytosis, exocytosis and cell secretion; lysosomes; peroxisomes; mechanisms for controlling the fate of synthesized proteins - Mitochondria: structure, ultrastructure and functions; biogenesis of mitochondria - Cytoskeleton: microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments; relationships between cytoskeleton and other cellular and extracellular structures - Core: structure, ultrastructure; nuclear envelope and nucleocytoplasmic traffic; chromatin organization - Nucleolus: structure and ultrastructure; biogenesis of ribosomes - Cell division: chromosomes, mitotic apparatus; mitosis; phases and regulation of the cell cycle; growth factors - differentiation; proliferation; apoptosis; intercellular signals.
HISTOLOGY - Cellular aggregation: tissues, organs, apparatuses. The renewal of fabrics. Stem cells and kinetics of cell populations - Epithelial tissues: structural, embryological and functional classification of epithelia; specializations of the surface and polarity; basement membrane - Coating epithelia: structure of the main coating epitheliums - Glandular epithelia: morphofunctional classification of the glands; histological organization of the main glands - Epithelium of lining and glands of the oral cavity - Connective tissues: general characters and classification - Connective tissue p.d .: cells and intercellular substance; glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans; amorphous matrix and fibers; biosynthesis and organization of extracellular components; functions of connective tissue; variety of connective tissue - Adipose tissue - Cartilaginous tissue: structural and functional characteristics; the cartilaginous matrix; cartilage types; cartilage histogenesis; perichondrium - Bone tissue: cells and intercellular substance; bone lamellae and lamellar systems; compact and spongy bone; periosteum and endosteal; ossification; augmentation and remodeling of the bone; metabolic functions of the bone - Tooth and oral cavity: morpho-functional characteristics of dental tissues: dentin, cement, enamel, pulp; periodontal ligament and alveolar bone; histological organization of the gingiva, of the oral cavity and of the attached glands - Blood: plasma; Red blood cells; White blood cells; platelets - myeloid tissue: hematopoiesis - lymphoid system: immunocompetent cells; structure of the lymphoid tissue; notes on the structure of the lymphoid organs - Muscle tissues: general characters and classification - Skeletal muscle tissue: structural and ultrastructural organization; molecular bases of muscle contraction; contraction control; skeletal muscle histophysiology - Cardiac muscle tissue: structural and ultrastructural organization - Smooth muscle tissue - Nervous tissue: general organization of the nervous system; the neuron and its extensions; impulse conduction; synapses; neuromuscular junction; neuroglia cells; histophysiology of the nervous tissue; general structure of the nerves.
EMBRIOLOGY - Gametogenesis: ovary and testis structure; meiosis; male and female gametogenesis - Fertilization: gamete changes; histophysiology of fertilization; the zygote - The week of development: segmentation; morula; blastocyst; embryoblast and trophoblast - II week of development: implant; bilaminar disk; evolution of the trophoblast - III week of development: development of the mesoderm; notochord; the three germinative leaflets and their derivatives; definition of the shape of the body - Embryonic appendages Ectoderma: neural tube and encephalic vesicles; stomodeo - Endoderma: primitive intestine; anterior gut and pharyngeal intestine: furrows, arches and gill pockets; development of salivary glands - Mesoderm: paraxial mesoderm; somites and their derivatives; mesenchyme - Development of the teeth: the dental lamina, the dental gems, the goblet stage; origin of dentin, pulp and enamel; root formation; growth factors in tooth development.