Atom. Electronic configuration of the elements. Periodic properties of elements. Ionization potentials. Electronic affinity, electronegativity. Intra and intermolecular chemical bonds. Property of Matter. The gaseous state: pressure. Boyle's law. Charles’s Law. Gay-Lussac’s Low. General gas law. Avogadro's law. Solid state: metallic, ionic, molecular, covalent crystalline solids. The liquid state: liquid-vapor equilibrium and vapor pressure. Solutions. Dilutions. Solubility. Colligative properties of solutions. Osmolarity.
Chemical transformations: reactions and mass conservation law. Stoichiometry. Kinetics and equilibrium in chemical reactions. Chemical kinetics: Homogeneous reactions and heterogeneous reactions. Reaction speed. Collision theory. Reagent nature and steric effect. Reagent concentration. Speed constants and speed law. Reaction order. Activation energy. Reaction diagrams and activated complex theory. Temperature effects: Arrhenius equation. Catalysts and catalysis: Characteristics of catalysts and enzymes. Chemical equilibria: equilibrium constant and mass action law.
Basic acid concept - Acids and bases of Arrhenius; ionization reactions. Ionic product of water and pH. Strength of acids and bases in an aqueous environment: polyprotic acids and polyvalent bases. Calculation of the pH of aqueous solutions. Acid-base titration: Acids and bases according to Bronsted. Hydrolysis of salts. Buffer solutions. Blood buffer systems. Redox reactions: Oxidation number. Redox reaction in biological systems. Subatomic phenomena: Radioactive decay. Decay rate and semitransformation time of radioisotopes. Unit of measurement. Applications of radionuclides in medicine.
Thermodynamics. First principle of thermodynamics: Enthalpy, Hess’s Law. Average bonding energy. Reversible and irreversible transformations; forms of energy. Entropy and the second principle of thermodynamics. Free energy.
Electrochemistry: Transformations of chemical energy into electrical energy. Electrolyte conductivity. Electric potential. Electrolysis. Batteries or galvanic cells. Standard potential. Nernst's law. Voltage of a battery.
Organic chemistry and propaedeutic Biochemistry
Chemical bond and hybridization of Carbon. Alkanes and cycloalkanes: structure, nomenclature, properties and chemical reactions.
Structure isomerism and stereoisomerism: conformational isomers and geometric isomers, optical isomers. Newman projections and Fischer projections. Chirality and rules for the assignment of the absolute configuration.
Alkenes: structure, nomenclature and addition reactions; Markovnikov rule and stability of carbocations. Conjugated dienes.
Alchyne: structure, nomenclature properties and reactions.
Aromatic compounds: benzene and derivatives (structure, nomenclature, aromaticity, resonance structures). Electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions of benzene.
Haloalkanes: substitution and elimination’s reactions.
Alcohols, phenols and ethers: structure, nomenclature, properties and main chemical reactions.
Aldehydes and ketones: structure, nomenclature, properties, preparation of aldehydes and ketones (Oxidation of alcohols), and main chemical reactions, keto-enolic equilibrium.
Amines: structure, nomenclature, properties, preparation from haloalkanes, reactions.
Carboxylic acids: structure, nomenclature, properties, formation, reactivity.
Carboxylic acid derivatives: haloalkanes, amides, esters, anhydrides: structure, nomenclature, properties, formation of carboxylic acids and reactivity.
The chemistry of carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Mutarotation. Isomerism and stereoisomerism. Structure and properties of carbohydrates of biological interest. Glycoproteins.
The chemistry of lipids. Classification. Neutral fat. Fatty acids. Steroids and sterols: bile acids, cholesterol. Phospholipids. Lipoproteins.
Amino acids: classification, structure and properties. Optical activity. Dissociation and titration curves. The Isoelectric point.
Chemistry and general properties of proteins. Classification of proteins. Protein structure. Simple and conjugated proteins.