TECHNICAL PHYSICS CONCEPTS
• Heat transfer mechanisms:
Steady and variable state general equation of thermal conduction in plane geometry stabilized periodic regime, convective and radiative heat exchanges between building structures and indoor and outdoor environments in summer and winter.
• Vapor transmission mechanisms through the structures:
Diffusion, capillarity, convection inside the air, checks for surface and interstitial condensation, methods of condensation drying and room dehumidification techniques.
THE BUILDING ENCLOSURE
• Thermal properties of the building envelope in steady state:
Thermal conductivity and equivalent thermal conductivity, declared and project thermal conductivity. Thermal resistance and thermal transmittance of multilayer walls with homogeneous and inhomogeneous layers. Limit values of thermal transmittance in winter conditions. Determination of winter heat loss according to current legislation.
• Thermal properties of the building envelope in dynamic regime:
Specific heat capacity (specific heat) of the materials used in buildings, Thermal diffusivity, Thermal mass, Periodic thermal transmittance, Phase displacement and attenuation factor. Determination of summer thermal loads according to current legislation.
• Opaque walls:
Heavy, medium and light structures, air tightness and thermal insulation, insulating materials of mineral, animal, synthetic origin, insulation techniques for various types of walls, floors and foundations, ventilated walls, roofs and green walls.
• Transparent walls and windows:
Thermal characteristics of glass, single glazing, double glazing, selective and low-emissivity glazing, solar factor. Thermal transmittance of windows.
• Shape, structure, and mixed thermal bridges,
heterogeneity temperature coefficient, linear coefficient of the thermal bridge: methods of determination.
• Natural, mechanical (CMV) and hybrid ventilation.
ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF BUILDINGS
• Energy certification of buildings. Energy Performance Certificate (APE) of the building. Global index of energy performance of buildings. Nearly zero energy buildings NZEB (Net Zero Energy Building). Technical standards UNI 11300. Energy diagnosis of buildings.
PASSIVE AIR CONDITIONING TECHNIQUES
• Geometric and structural parameters that influence the thermal behavior of the building envelope: position, orientation, aspect ratio, exposure to prevailing winds.
• Passive ventilation cooling techniques:
Correct distribution of a group of buildings and of the openings of a building, air-to-ground exchangers.
• Behavior of structures with respect to radiative thermal loads:
Optimization of the radiative heat input in winter and reduction of summer heat loads through correct exposure and size of the openings and by shielding. Shading systems for internal and external transparent surfaces, fixed and mobile screens, natural screens.
• Passive solar systems with direct, indirect and isolated gain, Trombe Mitchel wall, Barra-Costantini solar chimney, added solar greenhouses, roof-pond.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE ENERGY BEHAVIOR OF BUILDINGS
• Examples of numerical simulation of the thermal behavior of buildings, calculation of winter heat losses and summer heat loads, simulation of energy behavior in a dynamic regime, economic and environmental impact assessment of various building energy efficiency solutions.
Hydronic and aeraulic circuits
Radian surfaces (floor, ceiling, ..)
Constant Flow Rate
Variable Flow Rate
Variable temperature and variable flow rate
Air-Water Mixed Systems