Introduction: States of matter. Homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. Chemical substances and elements
- Atomic structure of matter: Atomic theory. Properties of the atom. Nuclear structure and isotopes. Atomic weights. Chemical symbols and their quantitative meaning
- Nomenclature of main chemical substances: Molecular and ionic chemicals, chemical formulas of simple compounds.
- Chemical reactions: Writing and balancing of chemical reactions.
- Calculations with chemical formulas and equations: Avogadro's number, concept of mole. Molar mass. Determination of chemical formulas. Stoichiometry.
- The gaseous state: gaseous pressure and its measurement. Empirical gas laws. Ideal gas law. Gas mixtures and partial pressures. Notes on the kinetic theory of gases. Speed distribution,diffusion and effusion. Real gases.
- Brief introduction to thermodynamics and thermochemistry:
- Structure of the atom: First models. Atomic spectra and their interpretation. Bohr model. Principles of quantum mechanics: wave nature of the electron, De Broglie relation, uncertainty principle. Quantum numbers and atomic orbitals. Electronic spin and Pauli exclusion principle. Aufbau principle. Electronic configuration of atoms. Hund's rule. The period system
ico of the elements. Periodic properties of the elements: ionization potential, electron affinity.
- The chemical bond: Ionic bond: Born-Haber cycle for NaCl. Electronic configurations of ions. Covalent bond: generality, octet rule. Lewis formulas. Delocalized bonds and resonance. Distance, order and binding energy. Molecular geometry and dipolar moment. Repulsion theory between pairs of electrons (VSEPR). Valence bond theory: hybrid orbitals, multiple bonds. Magnetic properties of molecules. Molecular orbital theory: hydrogen molecule, electronic configurations of diatomic molecules, bond order, magnetic properties.
- State changes: Phase transitions. Equilibrium between phases in one-component systems. Liquid-vapor equilibrium, vapor pressure. Boiling point. Clausius-Clapeyron equation. State diagrams.
- Intermolecular bonds: dipole-dipole forces, London forces, Van der Waals forces. Hydrogen bond.
- States of matter: The liquid state. The solid state: Molecular, covalent, ionic solids. Metallic solids. Crystalline structures. Lattices and crystalline systems.
- The solutions: Types of solutions. Solubility and factors affecting it. Henry's Law. Concentration and its units. Ideal solutions. Raoult's law. Totally miscible liquid mixtures: liquid-vapor equilibrium. Colligative properties of solutions: cryoscopic lowering, ebullioscopic raising, osmosis.
- Elements of chemical kinetics: Reaction rate. Dependence of the reaction rate on concentration.
- Chemical equilibrium. Equilibrium constant. Heterogeneous equilibria. Shifting the balance: Le Chatelier's principle. Effect of temperature on equilibrium: Van't Hoff equation.
- Acid-base theories: Definitions of acids and bases according to Arrhenius, Bronsted and Lewis. Molecular structure and strength of acids. • Acid-base balances: Self-ionization of water. Solution of a strong acid or base. The pH of a solution. Ionization equilibria of an acid or a weak base. Polyprotic acids. Hydrolysis. Buffer solutions. Acid-base titrations. Indicators
-Solubility equilibria: Solubility product. Effect of common ions. Precipitation. Effect of pH on solubility.
- Redox reactions: Oxidation numbers. Balancing of redox reactions. Electrochemistry